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With References to the several Articles contributed by each.

Apams, Arruur, R.N., F.L.S., &c., and ANnGas, GEoRGE Frencu, C.M.Z.S.

Descriptions of New Species of Shells, chiefly from Au-

stralia, in the Collection of Mr. Angas

Apams, Henry, F.L.S., and Aneas, Georce FReEncu, C.M.Z.S.

Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Chitonide from

the Australian Seas, in the Collection of George French

Oa rier

Aneas, Georce Frencu, C.M.Z.S.

Observations on the Geographical Distribution of the Species of Voluta and Cymbium in the Australian Seas .. ..

Anoas, Georce Frencu, C.M.Z.S., and Apams, ARTHUR, R.N., F.L.S., &e. Descriptions of New Species of Shells, chiefly from Au- stralia, in the Collection of Mr. Angas



Iv Aneas, GrorGe Frencu, C.M.Z.S., and Apams, Henry, F.L.S. Descriptions of New Species of Chitonide from the Austra-

lian Seas, in the Collection of George French Angas

Antuony, Harry, M.D.

Extract of a letter, dated Brass River, Bight of Biafra, ad- dressed to Mr. Louis Fraser, respecting the intended trans- portation of what was supposed to be a species of Clarias..

ARCHER, S., Ass. Surg. 98th Foot.

Extract from a letter addressed to S. P. Woodward, Esq., dated Rawal Pindee, respecting some shells from Cashmere

Barrp, W., M.D., F.L.S.

Remarks on a Species of Shell belonging to the Family Dentaliide. With Notes on their use by the Natives of Van- couver’s Island and British Columbia, by J. K. Lorn, F.Z.S.

Bartuett, A. D.

Exhibition of a curious variety of the Common Partridge

Bare, C. Spence, F.R.S.

Characters of New Species of Crustaceans discovered by J. K. Lord on the Coast of Vancouver Island............

Bravan, Lieut. R. C., of the Bengal Revenue Survey Depart- ment.

Exhibition, by the Secretary, of a series of specimens of birds’ eggs, collected in the vicinity of Barrackpore, and pre- sented to the Society, with notes on their nesting-habits, by

Brppome, Captain R. H., Officiating Conservator of Forests, Madras.

Description of a New Species of laps from Malabar... .

Bennett, Dr. Grorer, F.Z.S.

Notes on the Didunculus strigirostris, or Tooth-billed Pi- BOOM ise -tarnene «









———e ee

Page Buytu, Epwarp, C.M.Z.S. Notes on Sandry Mammalsisaq% 08 so od aren! 482 Bocages, J. V. Barsoza pv, Directeur du Muséum @’ Histoire Naturelle de Lisbonne, etc. Notice sur un Batrachien nouveau du Portugal ........ 264 Note sur la Découverte d’un Zoophyte de la Famille Hyalo- chetides sur la Cote du Portugal...................... 265

Bocage, J. V. Barsoza, vu, Directeur du Muséum a’ Histoire Naturelle de Lisbonne, ete.; et F. pz Briro CAPELLo,

Aide-Naturaliste au dit Muséum. Sur quelques Espéces inédites de Squalide de la Tribu Acanthiana, Gray, qui fréquentent les Cotes du Portugal... 260

Buckuanp, Franx T., M.A., F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks on, some Oysters from Prince MARASLESIATIONS cr..cp¥eheses arts oo. oe.9 Sea ee en 1

Observations on the habits of Spawning Trout, and on the results obtained in the course of experiments made with eggs amen: from dead fishein ss tae een cathe tae ee te 8°) 68

Carre.1o, F. pr Briro, et Bocacez, J. V. Barsoza pv. Sur quelques Espéces inédites de Squalide de la Tribu Acanthiana, Gray, qui fréquentent les Cotes du Portugal .. 260

CarpENTER, Puiip P., B.A., Ph.D. Contributions towards a Monograph of the Pandoride .. 596

Carter, Henry. Description of the New Lizard (Spatalura carteri, Gray), arent Wifes oe SR ag 3 Hb, -pe ss Deed to ale lt yatta oe 135

Cox, Jamss C., M.D., F.R.C.S. Edinb., Secretary to the Ento- mological Society of New South Wales.

On a supposed New Species of the Genus Helix from ivercn-eustern Anstialia J... 6... eee amdiene a eelsecs ) 40

vi Page Descriptions of Two New Species of Australian Land Shells 486

Descriptions of Four New Species of Australian Land Shells 594

Crisp, Epwarps, M.D., F.Z.S. On the Visceral Anatomy of the Screamer (Chauna cha-

PUP) tile We cscs, Taka Stks we Wiese AG selene & singe Ae On Filaria gracilisin a Monkey ......-..----++eee > 16 On some parts of the Anatomy of the Porpoise ......-. 17

Contributions to the Anatomy of the Giraffe, with an Ac- count of the Length of the Alimentary Canal of many of the

Ruminants, as measured by the Author ............+... 68 Exhibition of some drawings representing the eggs and

young of the Anaconda (Hunectes murinus) ......-.++-: 68 Contributions to the Anatomy of the Eland............ 98

Exhibition of a wax cast of the tongue, larynx, trachea, heart, lungs, and thyroid gland of a young Lion at birth .. 158

Exhibition of an ear of barley ...........-+---+++--- 159

On the Change of Colour in the Common Trout (Salmo Vita) eee SS OL em ee ee 166

Further Contributions to the Anatomy of the Giraffe and the Nylehaa’ Sei 25. af SR. as ese ne ne aie ee 269

Doury, Dr. H.

List of the Shells collected by Capt. Speke during his Secoud Journey through Central Africa ....... niente asa meee 116

Fiower, W. H., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., Conservator of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.

On the Optic Lobes of the Brain of the Echidna........ 18 On a Lesser Fin- Whale (Balenoptera rostrata, Fabr.) re- cently stranded on the Norfolk Coast .................. 252

On the Brain of the Red ase ce re seni- culite, MAE ss ee hapa eal © oun ?e eS Gee Meee Se

Vil Page Notes on the Skeletons of Whales in the principal Mu-

seums of Holland and Belgium, with Descriptions of Two Species apparently new to Science .......... 002... 000 384

On a New Species of Grampus (Orca meridionalis) from PAPI OS ie cd AO) cpuia eh oy telethon th ap Sa’ w heastecccary 420

Fraser, Louts, C.M.Z.S. List of specialities observed in several Zoological Gardens 159

Exhibition of the Horns of Budorcas tazicolor, Hodgs... 168

Exhibition of a specimen of Euplocamus prelatus, from Bip OW BEC CCHIOH Tay, sahti. 52 nine Wios e Salocs Wege are oe an 377

Exhibition of a second pair of Horns of Budorcas taxicolor, also from his own collection............ Rea as ca areus OUT

Gouxp, Joun, F.R.S., F.Z.S. Description of a New Species of Gull from Tibet ...... 54 Description of a New Species of Chrysococcyx ........ 73 Description of a New Species of the Genus Mergus .... 184

Exhibition of a specimen of Emberiza pusilla, Pall., and Anthus campestris, captured near Brighton.............. 377

Description of the Egg of Parra gallinacea............ 661

Gray, GrorGEe Rosert, F.L.S., F.Z.S. Notice of a New Species of Goliathus................ 34

On a New Species of Megapode .................... 41

Notice of a New Species of Turacus from Eastern Africa 44

On a New Species of Prionops ............ a Gees ree ea On a New Species of Smithornis ......-..46.... 020205 143 On a New Species of Pucrasia from China............ 258

Gray, JoHn Epwarp, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., Keeper of the Zoological Collections in the Bri- tish Museum.

Notes on certain Species of Tortoises from the Asiatic Islands, transmitted to the British Museum by Dr. Bleeker. 11

viii Notice of a New Squirrel (Sciwrus ornatus) from Natal. .

Notes on Seals (Phocide), including the Description of a New Seal (Halicyon richardi) from the West Coast of North


Description of a New Mustela from Quito .......... 3 Notes on some Mammalia, with the Description of a New Golunda, from ‘Western Aiea... 2.0.0. 2 weiss ws one eiste es Notes on some Lizards from South-eastern Africa, with the Descriptions of several New Species ...........-.--- Notice of a New Species of Zorilla .........0++--+ 00:

Revision of the Species of Trionychide found in Asia and Africa, with the Descriptions of some New Species........

Notes on the Species of Sand-Moles (Georychus) Additional Observations on Dermatemys, a Genus of Emy- dide from Central America .........-. 0 Description of a New Species of Stawrotypus (S. salvinit) from Guatemala ho. 2 boos Sas tir spies tiny Se age oe On the Genera of Chelydide and the Characters furnished by the, Study ‘of their Skulls. . 00.0... 20. -s ea ea des eee Notice of a Portion of a New Form of Animal (Myriosteon higginsii) ,probably indicating a New Group of Echinodermata Note on the Bonnet of the Right Whale.............. On the Cetacea which have been observed in the Seas sur- rounding the British Islands............. On Urocyclus, a New Genus of Gasteropodous Mollusca mona ATCA tis. x0!5 = 6 jos Mig daiR eile: ats = okays <1 amend ee Notice of a New Variety of Rhodona punctata from the Weill RIVET sc shee age yere pe ocean ries terete Note on Sternotherus adansonii from West Africa...... Notice of a New Variety of Galago from Quillimane (Oto- gale crassicaudata, var. kirkii). ..... 20.50. 00es cece ees Note on the Clawed Toads (Dactylethra) of Africa ....

Revision of the Genera and Species of Chamaleonide, with the Description of some New Species .............. eit

Page 13




ix A Revision of the Genera and Species of Viverrine Animals (Viverride), founded on the Collection in the British Museum

Notice of the Atlas and Cervical Vertebree of a Right Whale in the Museum of Sydney, New South Wales ....... ..

A Revision of the Genera and Species of Ursine Animals (Urside), founded on the Collection in the British Museum

GinTuer, ALBert, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.Z.S. Description of a New Species of Mormyrus.. . On some New Species of Central-American Fishes .... ..

Third Contribution to our Knowledge of Batrachians from Australia Bae ier aivacns aim emo sas Dew ates lacie On the Reptiles and Fishes obtained by Capt. Speke during the Hast-African Expedition .... «06. .<!, ..j[esucale sae sas

Report of a Collection of Fishes made by Messrs. Dow, Godman, and Salvin in Guatemala ................ cee

On a Poison-organ in a Genus of Batrachoid Fishes ....

On a New Genus of Pediculate Fish from the Sea of Ma- BIS Sticke it 0s pte en date Ses oe DA AE inte

Report ona Collection of Reptiles and Fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa Regions .............. Descriptions of some New Species of Batrachians from West PETE Reese p's sete ok neck ts

Report on a Collection of Reptiles and Fishes from Pa- ReHINE. 235 ooo

GuRNEY, JoHN Henry, M.P., F.Z.S. List of Birds collected in Damara Land by Mr. C. J. SUT ESN ae oe a

Hancock, Henry J. B., F.Z.S. Notice of intention to try experiments on the supposed elec- Suiviliy, Of Cohapeigs 51. te mane) dese wisi. adban wate



144 155



. 479

. 488

x Page

Huxtey, Prof. T. H., F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. On the Angwantibo (Arctocebus calabarensis, Gray) .... 314 On the Structure of the Skull of Man, the Gorilla, the

Chimpanzee, and the Orang-Utan, yan the period of the Hirsi MenwHON 25.5 Mecuulaiee Beir imine 26+ -)~-2cbaoelak BBO

Kirk, Joun, M.D., F.L.S. List of Mammalia met with in Zambesia, East Tropical |: iis 1 ae Ee AN neh ata a tl teem cries eT op |

Krerrt, Gerarp, Acting Curator and Secretary of the Au- stralian Museum, Sydney. Description of Aspidiotes melanocephalus ............ 20 Description of Three New Species of Australian Snakes.. 180

Notes on Australian Freshwater Fishes, and Descriptions of. FouriNewmuSpeciesscoc: goste.S..ju. dowiosie Jc a: dingan bee

Latimer, Georces, Austrian Consul at Porto Rico. Letter from, offering to forward Manatees for the So- eiety-s Menagerie: 0). ¢.. 25s putacces> seus 0A de ele, ne ee

LEADBEATER, BENJAMIN, F.L.S., F.Z.S. Exhibition of a young Apteryx owenit............+.5. 1 Exhibition of Horns of the Cariboo (Tarandus rangifer). 1

Exhibition of a remarkable pair of tusks of the Indian Elephant ° ss'ee seta e's wise on 2 eae Oe oe

Lorp, J. K., F.Z.S. Notes on the use of a species of Shell of the Family Denta- liide by the Natives of Vancouver’s Island and British Columbia 137

Notes on the Urotrichus’: 00. oR ee ee SO

Mivart, St. Georee, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Lecturer on Compara- tive Anatomy at St. Mary’s Hospital. Notes on the Crania and Dentition of the Lemuride .... 611

xi Page Monrerro, Mr.

Exhibition of a living Pigeon (Columéa arquatrizx) trom Benoni Ate oe or BD. COREE DOR om athe hee a 18

Newton, ALFreD, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. Notes on the Zoology of Spitsbergen ................ 494

Owen, Professor RicnArp, D.C.L., F.Z.S., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Superintendent of the Natural History Collec- tions, British Museum.

Memoir on the Skeleton of the Great Auk (Alea impennis) 258

Memoir on Dinornis, being the ninth of a series of Contri- butions to the Society’s Transactions’ on this subject.... 648

Parker, W. K., F.Z.S. On the Osteology of the Kagu (Rhinochetus jubatus) .. 70 On the Sternal Apparatus of Birds and other Vertebrata 339

Pease, W. Harper.

Descriptions of New Species of Land Shells from the Islands of the Central Pacific, communicated by Dr. P. P. Carpenter 668

Remarks on the Species of Succinea inhabiting the Tahi- tian Archipelago, with Description of a New Species ...... 676

Prrters, Dr. W., F.M.Z.S., Director of the Royal Zoological Museum, Berlin.

extract ola letter from! -)s2s rs cs Case hs Gas ebe 62 cs 377

Preirrer, Dr. L.

Descriptions of Seven New Species of Land Shells, from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. /: ..2...520......... 603

SALVIN, OsBert, F.Z.S.

Descriptions of Seventeen New Species of Birds from Cp ebo Fie espe ae op ete a ain ld din 0) Sa cedars os See 579

xii Savin, Ossert, F.Z.S., and Scuater, Parnie Luruey.

Notes on a collection of Birds from the Isthmus of Panama

Scuater, Puinie Lutrtey, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.LS., Secretary to the Society.

List of Birds from Huaheine, Society Islands..........

On some Additions to the List of the Birds of the Falkland Islands ..

On the Species of the Genus Chauna ......

On the Mammals collected and observed by eee J. H. Speke during the East-African patent ; with Notes bs Capt. J. H. Speke ......

On the Birds collected by cae J. H. Speke di during the East-African Expedition ; with Notes by Capt. J. H. Speke On the Species of the American Genus Coccyzus ...... @ On some important additions to the Menagerie ........ Announcement of the arrival of a living Didunculus and of other additions to the Society’s Menagerie ....

On Two New Species of Birds from New Granada...... Announcement of Mr. James Thompson (the Society’s Head Keeper)’s safe arrival at Calcutta ................ Exhibition of a series of bird-skins collected by the Rev. H. B. Tristram’s Expedition in Palestine ..............

List of a Collection of Birds procured by Mr. George H. White in the vicinity of the City of Mexico ..

On a New Species of White Cockatoo living in the So- ciety’s Gardens (Cacatua ophthalmica) ....

Notes on the Species of Tadorna living in the Society’s Menagerie .. ...

Characters of a New Species of Falcon discovered by the

late Dr. Dickinson, of the Central African Mission, on the River, ShinG-gas gs sue ae ee Ea ee ee

Note on the Species of Cuckoos of the Genus Neomorphus



106 119 138

158 166

168 169 172 187 veg

248 249


Remarks on the breeding of Bennett’s Cassowary in the mee Societys (VMenatente ols wig aial ad Sis SAM SN wie Bee walla oo ZF Exhibition of a skeleton of Bennett’s Cassowary........ 271 Characters of Three New American Parrots ........... 297 Note on the Geographical Distribution of the Ducks of the Brent IPRAFOCUONE (oo S15 et ay ich in wea ne es as ieee, BOO Announcement of Mr. Thompson’s return from Calcutta . with a valuable collection of animals ................6-. 373 Notice of additions to the Menagerie ........... .... 374

Exhibition of a series of specimens of birds’ eggs, collected in the vicinity of Barrackpore, and preseuted to the Society, by Lieut. R. C. Beavan, with notes on their nesting-habits.. 375

Description of a New Species of Duck from Madagascar... 487 On some additions to the Menagerie ................ 587

Descriptions of Seven New Species of Birds discovered by the late Dr. John Natterer in Brazil .............. ... 605

Note on the Quadrumana living in the Society’s Menagerie 7 bo

SCLATER, Puinip Lutyiey, and Satvin, OsBerr.

Notes on a Collection of Birds from the Isthmus of Panama 342

Semper, OrrTo.

Descriptions of New Species of Mollusks of the Genera URINATE AE AUTRE Nc cicicie ose os i ca he nated 29.45 ed


List of Insects collected ss vl ea during the East- SPIE MAPIOSPECIENON cc. teers adie «vs areese yes moe Sach oe NEO

Swinuog, Rosert, F.Z.S., H. B. M.’s V.-Consul at Formosa.

Extracts from a letter from, respecting animals intended fertne: society 5) Wenamerie <4... odes au « <'san ety ok 2 « 168

Onta New Ratfrom Formosa: ... 64. 5. dsc.0n sce aat 189 Amendments to his ‘“‘ Catalogue of the Birds of China”’.. 271 Extracts from letters from, addressed to Dr. J. E.Gray.. 378


Page TEGETMEIER, Mr. Exhibition of experiments in a new mode of pinioning wild Tristram, Rev. H. B., C.M.Z.S. Descriptions of New Birds from Palestine ............ 169 Exhibition of a pair of Sanderlings (Calidris arenaria) from Grimsey Island, Iceland, and three eggs, supposed to be Phase we think Gym eee RNC wars tae aves, iecocep e's srk a aes Se Report on the Birds of Palestine .................... 426 Wauace, Atrrep R., F.Z.S. On the Parrots of the Malayan Region, with Remarks on their Habits, Distribution, and Affinities, and the Descriptions of Two. New, Species * -s.s:0 cu cimctt- adens onebice sauce oar


In Dr. Gray’s paper on the Chelydide (p. 129), the characters of the Section Hydraspidina should have been divided into two. The section-paragraph should commence with the words, “The auri- occipital arch, &c.,’’ and gives the characters that are contrasted with those of Section C, p. 131.


In Mr. Flower’s paper on a new species of Grampus (Orca meri- dionalis), the drawing of the upper surface of the skull (page 421 ) should have been reversed by the artist. As it stands now, the nasal apertures appear distorted towards the right side, instead of the left, as they are in nature.

Dr. Gray wishes to state with reference to Chameleo teniabron- chus, Smith, referred to at p. 476, that Sir Andrew Smith has, since the publication of Dr. Gray’s paper, presented the type specimen of this species to the British Museum.


Plate Page BS RS CLUTUS ONROLU Ste ata si a'a: saraiain air sKat Ante ING +s ab eek 13 I. { Fig. 1. Mormyrus tamandud.. +... sss see eee eves } 29 Fig. 2. DALES, . <, PASSA AD OED «Dale UL Bigs 1, Pristipomaldouat piSasanrawiet. of cab! heya 2 Fig. .2.. Microdesmus dipusy iste coe sls sate wees ss ; i 23 iv. { Be: L., Heros labiatiiaesvai2chi. sh oakiteelen s 3d5 Fig. 2, 2a. Eleotris seminudus........000.0e0005 Vit Golsothas) kirkianus) ic.cinic.. bio etagaeny -ebmetNen 0 ckaessers 34 Vil: Megapodiusinriichardit. «. cractryys a eieiiae 6 s.cle bees 4] Big. 1. Mirophyes fasciolatus os... 0.0. once sees ns VIL Fig. 2. Pterophrynus affinis Hedi nithca co Ryo OO Ons 46 Fig. 3. ——== fasmantensigas occa ceed eschews secs RS he eM 6s minicar He idisih ecole blades Miele wd VIII. Mustela aureoventris .............: ip Apo CEC ONLOD o 55 IX. { ig ee OT OBES WAKE |-\ers.c 7s [e\c}e ars ereiale! sistas « ais eins \ 58 Fig. 2. Homodactylus turnerit ..........000e 000s X= LOMA GIOINUCNE SNS eee es Whi d es oe emcee oee 69 IE OVATE Ten IOS GEibGins scape Saou oe od sc aon at 74 PENS, TRH Gehphus SOK aio gice pian oF ap do shoe ee nay em } 98 UNE OIMILE PULEREN OD a pa. nin fc'ehe a: 8 cad wscieias 9 Vala wal ee' se ANY.» Psclidoprocne Gtbicepe s i..0 ho 3566 sn tse oaian on o's seins 106 BN eis CoATERIIS. OREM ERLUR osa. Cyete ata sk ji any diehavg sole niB «0a op one “one 115 RVD SIL OPNTS Tt] OLALET. GIES -\o, «isi g7a,cieie.c"ars so. ain.6.0 sieve ee 4 143 Beilin Cacaiua ducorpsit ood avo cies cv wiatuv welds ose sed oh 187 Poy Uh.” “Padorna tadoraotdesi cc 505 Seale vce ive wile Sos \ 189 XIX. DAIBCTLLD Wtiarelserecoster es Te ct auatelenere the petiote orate tee RE MERASEA DUREROSPALL 1 ine ds Pits Henge wudles 258 EXON CHILO GLOSSATUSELANLCE). 5) arcs + os «eng au: es) lees ae eee ae 264 XXII. Hyalonema lusitantcwm ... 2.00. cc eek cece ee eees 265 XXIII. Sternotherus adansonii.......... 0. cc cee cee eaes 296 KONUVE MConunus TROMONUSLET wos coe tat ey eos he tee ee 297 MoV “Melanocetus johnsone 25 «0.6 wee sce vs cteeisie a sie oltre 301


Plate Page Fig. 1. Coronella nototania ..........eeee eevee sa { Fig. 2. Chametortus aulicus,..i..s.sesececesees | Fig. 1. Hyperolius flavomaculatus ..........+.+- > 303 XXVII. Fig. 2. —— Citrinus......0sccccvccervecsuscecs ] Fig. 3. —— Microps....cecccrcsccesccccescens XXVIII. Arctocebus calabarensis.... 0. cccceescccvececcsene 314 XXIX. Brain of Mycetes seniculus.........0secceesscreces 335 XXX. LEucometis cassinit ......... eee eens DODO Owe 342 XXXI. Chameleon monachus........000ssecececceesees xxx { Fig. 1. Ensirostris melleri .... +. 00+ eevee evens 465 \ Fig. 2. Sauroceras rhinoceratum .......40.0ee00s Fig. 1. Pywicephalus rugosus .....)-++0eeeeeees Fig. 2. Cystignathus bocagii........0+0.eeeeees aaa Fig. 3. Hyperolinus nasutus ........sccceenseece ak Fig. 4. MCCACTUCLUSs woloie ciiviele (ieee) otal eelna sine KRXIV a Anas, miellertic rie nadaasy sant tee emt tes okies 487 KX Vi. < -Mayiadestes:melanaps ores tdeiniets Seria ss doe ude eis KEXVI -Carpodecies nitidis,.,. Cs visiv.. Mosh see } 579 XXXVIL { Fig. Ie Granatellus MELZELNTWE eaves bie sie lao miele oes Fig. 2. SOLUCEM cr otee eee tere ke, alah cs Eat eae centers | 605 XXXVIIL. .Péeroptochus thoracicus ) 2... 0005s ioe ee ee eects \ RINGING. 5 Pept MAL LEPENs Baas ive tel ovetc\ evs ob vite ote Ko/olphet tio eiela\ oi EXT ay pI CLAY OG OMIRCLLE ein ue ne s)he Rata akrerate ete hele) ete taetn RLM PECHECHDSALONUS xi a1a or.ta Aehiiene ene tele enetet aletere) areal } 1”








January 12, 1864. Dr. J. E. Gray in the Chair.

Mr. Buckland exhibited and made remarks on some specimens of Oysters from Prince Edward’s Island, alluding especially to the pro- bable advantages of introducing the American species Ostrea virgi- nica into this country.

Mr. Leadbeater exhibited a young specimen of Owen’s Apteryx (Apteryx owenii) from New Zealand.

Mr. Henry J. B. Hancock gave notice of his intention to try some experiments on the supposed electricity of Octopus in the Society’s Gardens.

The following papers were read :—

1. A List or Brrps coLLecTreD In DAMARA LAND BY Mr. C.J. AnprerRsson. By J. H. Gurney, M.P., F.Z.S.

In drawing up this list of birds, which I have received from my friend Mr. Andersson, and which bears full testimony to his well- known scientific assiduity as an ornithological collector, I have omitted those species which have already been enumerated, by Messrs. Strick- land and Sclater in the Contributions to Ornithology’ for 1852, as haying been collected by Mr. Andersson in his first journey to Da- mara Land, and confine myself to the enumeration of species not mentioned in the above-named list, but which have been all collected by Mr. Andersson in that country.

Proc. Zoou. Soc.—1864, No. I.

2 MR. J. H. GURNEY ON BIRDS [Jan. 12,

1. Fatco srarmicus, Temm. 2, TINNUNCULUS RUPICOLOIDES (Smith). 3. TINNUNCULUS CENCHRIS (Frisch).


This is the first instance which has come to my knowledge of the occurrence of this species south of the equator. The specimens sent me are marked as having been obtained at Omatolo, January 2nd, 1860; they consist of two adult and one immature males, and one adult female.

5. Metizrax MonoGRAMmicus (Temm.). 6. MeLierax poLyzonus (Riipp.).

7. AccrpPiTeR TAcHIRO (Daud.).



10. Crrcus crnerArius (Mont.).

11. Circus swarnsont, Smith.

12. Buso tacrevus (Temm.).

13. Coractras prLosus, Lath.

14, Hirunpo monrerrt, Hartl.

15. IrR1soR SENEGALENSIS (Vieill. }.

16. DryMa@ca RUFICAPILLA, Smith.

17. DryMa@CA CHINIANA, Smith.



Dr. Hartlaub agrees with me in referring the specimen sent to this species, though the dimensions barely equal the average size of European specimens.

23. AEDON LEuUcoPHRYS (Vieill.). 24, BRADYORNIS MARIQUENSIS, Smith. 25. Parus NIGER, Vieill.

26. Or1oLUS AURATUS, Vieill.


27. Muscicapa Grisoxa, Linn.


29. ENNEoctToNnus coLiurio (Linn.). 30. TeLEPHONUS TRIVIRGATUS (Smith). 31. Basanistes crssorpEs (Smith).

32. Prionops rerzit, Wahlberg.

33. PRionoprs TALACOMA, Smith.


36. EsrreLpA Bpencuata (Linn.).

37. Passer pirrusus, Smith.


40. FPRINGILLARIA FLAVIVENTRIS (Vieill.). 41. OxyLopnus GLanparrvus (Linn.). 42. Cucuxuus cLamosvus, Lath.

43. Gina capensis (Linn.).

44. FrancoLinus sustrorauatus, Smith. 45. Currrusta LaTeRALts (Smith).

46. Terexia cinerea (Temm.).

47. ParRA AFRICANA, Gmel.

48. Rauuus aquaricus, Linn.

49. ORTYGOMETRA BAILLONI (Vieill.). 50. CorETHRURA DimrD1IATA (Temm.). 51, GaLuiInuLa cHLoropus (Linn.).

52. GALLINULA PUMILA, Sclater, Ibis, 1859, pl. 7, p. 249.

Mr. Andersson has also, at my request, put together the following notes on the habits of some of the birds enumerated in this list and in that of Messrs. Strickland and Sclater above referred to, as ob- served by him in Damara Land and Namaqua Land.

_ Fatco siarmicus, Temm. Not uncommon, but very wary and difficult of approach. Ob-

4 MR. J. H. GURNEY ON BIRDS [Jan. 12,

served both north and south of the Orange River (I always speak of the south-west coast). Found most abundant in the neighbour- hood of the Okavango River. Flight very rapid and powerful.


The commonest Sparrow-Hawk in Damara Land, especially abun- dant in some rainy seasons. Feeds on mice, lizards, locusts, moths, white ants, &c.

Anterior part of bill and legs bright reddish orange ; nails of a dark horn-black ; iris brilliant purple. Extreme length of a full-grown female* about 1 foot 1 inch 8 lines, the male being only 12 inches long.


Not uncommon in Damara and Great Namaqua Land, but not so numerous as Accipiter gabar. Food nearly similar to that of the preceding species. Iris dark brown; legs yellow, brightest beneath the toes; bill bluish black, approaching to the latter colour towards the extremities.


Very rare in all parts from the Orange River on the south to the Okavango River to the north, and Lake Ngami to the east. I never personally observed above seven or eight specimens. Their flight appears short when disturbed ; they just remove from one tree or bush to another. Usually found in pairs. Ata distance they have scarcely the appearance of Hawks, and may easily be mistaken for some large species of Shrike.


T am inclined to think this Hawk a scarce bird; at all events, I have only obtained three or four specimens, and, to the best of my recollection, have seen but few more; however, from its great re- semblance at a distance to one or two other species, it is probable I may have overlooked or confounded him with such. Iris bright orange; legs yellow; base of upper mandible yellow, remainder (except near the base, where it is bluish black) darkish.


Very rare; I do not remember to have met with it in Great Na- maqua Land.


Migratory. In favourably rainy seasons met with pretty nume- rously. Their haunts are the sides and banks of marshes and rivers and other humid places. I have observed very few old or mature

* All measurements given in these notes are taken from birds immediately after death. I divide my inch into 12 lines.


birds either in Damara or Great Namaqua Land. Food—lizards; mice, white ants, &c.


I did not observe this elegant and interesting bird until I had passed the latitude of Omanboudi. To the northward of this it is not un- common, being usually found in secluded spots, where it restlessly hops about from branch to branch amongst the brushwood ( in flocks often consisting of numerous individuals). At times these fly slowly from tree to tree (or bush, as the case may be), and generally close to the ground. The moment they have reached their temporary destination, the first-arrived fix their gaze intently below them on the ground; and if any prey is within sight, down these alight as quick as thought. Thus some of the flock are always at once on the ground, perching or moving onwards.

Prionors retTz11, Wahlberg.

I never but once observed this bird, and that was a few days south of the Okavango River. There were six individuals in a flock, all of which I secured—a rather fortunate event, since they were exceed- ingly wary and watchful, always perching on the loftiest and most exposed situations. These six individuals appeared to me to be all of one hatching, since I think I only obtamed two adults (male and female), the remainder being evidently young birds of both cin They exactly resemble P. talacoma in their manners and




I have two specimens of these Laniade greatly resembling each other, as well as the one depicted in the Nat. Library’ as T. tri- virgatus. They differ from each other a trifle in size, and the bill of one is of a darker horn-colour, whilst that of the other is reddish brown (this is the colour of Dr. Smith’s specimen). The two centre tail-feathers of mine are of a brownish grey, with numerous dark bars particularly conspicuous on the upper or outer surface. In Dr. Smith’s, again, all the tail-feathers are broadly tipped with white, whilst in my specimens several of the centre feathers are without this edging. I never observed this bird till after I passed the northern frontier of Damara Land proper.


Very common throughout Damara and Great Namaqua Land, and as far as the River Okavango to the northward. My experience of this bird differs considerably from that gained by Dr. Smith, who thinks it very similar in habits to the short-legged Thrushes. To me it is more of a Fly-catcher or even of a Shrike; for, like either of these, it watches for its prey from some elevated spot, from which it pounces with great rapidity on anything coming within reach, It

6 MR. J. H. GURNEY ON BIRDS (Jan. 12,

is very partial to burnt ground and localities singed by fire. Dr. Smith has given a good illustration of the young.

Orrouvs auratus (Vieill.).

I have only once or twice observed this splendid Oriole in the southern parts of Damara Land—that is, the mature bird. The young (at least I believe it to be the same bird) is pretty common, but only during the rainy season; for it is migratory. The old bird is extremely shy and wary, and always keeps to the thickest part of the jungle. On and in the neighbourhood of the Okavango River it is, however, more abundant, but still retains its shy habits.

In the young bird the iris is brown, legs lead-colour, bill reddish brown.

- Parus nicer (Vieill.).

Never observed in Great Namaqua Land, and very rare in Da- mara Land. It is only as one approaches the Okavango River that it becomes of more frequent occurrence. Resembles the great Euro- pean Titmouse in its habits.


Found sparingly from the confines of the Okavango River to the Orange River on the south—that is, as regards the west coast. Iris dark brown.


Common throughout Damara Land and parts adjacent (north- ward), but almost entirely as a migratory bird. A few isolated indi- viduals probably remain all the year round, for I have observed such Icng after the general migration is over. Shy and wary.


First observed in the neighbourhood (and there very sparingly) of the Okavango River, and never in Damara or Great Namaqua Land. Its real home must be considerably north of the river in question, for I merely noticed it as a migratory bird. Exceedingly shy and difficult of approach ; generally observed moving about in the upper parts of large trees.


Abundant in Damara and Great Namaqua Land. Most of the old birds appear to me to migrate. Builds its nest amongst reeds, or in small trees immediately overhanging water. Iris orange ; legs, toes and claws, and lower mandible nearly flesh-red ; upper man- dible brownish red. Gregarious.


I first observed this plain but pretty Francolin as I approached the Okavango River; indeed the few specimens obtained by myself


were secured within a few days’ journey of it. It has a true Par- tridge’s call. Dr. Smith describes its strongholds as rocky places, whereas I found it on grassy plains interspersed with large trees and a little brushwood.


Found sparingly (necessarily on account of the scarcity of suitable localities) in Damara Land, also on the River Okavango. At Oman- boudi I found it plentiful, where it also bred. I found the nest re- peatedly. It usually contained as many as seven eggs of a dull olive- brown colour, or rather a yellowish brown, indistinctly marked with a confusion of brownish freckles. The size of the eggs is enormous —if anything, larger than those of European Starlings. This spe- cies will take the wing for a short distance when hard pressed and when beyond the immediate refuge of reeds and rushes, its usual stronghold.

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS. Common in Damara and Great Namaqua Land—that is, wherever there is a swampy spot.


Never but once saw this bird in Damara Land, and that was at Omanboudi; but it is common in the lake regions, and on the River Okavango, where it also breeds.


This is to Damara Land and parts adjacent what the Starling is to many parts of Europe. In manner, habits, mode of life, &., it is precisely similar. Eggs of a similar colour, though scarcely of so deep a blue. Irides bright orange. My friend Layard thinks there may be two species; but this I think doubtful. Entire length

9 inches 8 or 9 lines.


Pretty common throughout Damara Land. I fancy there may be two distinct species. Irides light reddish brown ; legs bluish brown ; bill black. Is, like others of the species, very uoisy but, as a rule, shy. A full-grown specimen measures 10 inches.

DRYMGCA CAPENSIS. Pretty common in the southern parts of Great Namaqua Land ; not observed in Damara Land; abundant in the Cape Colony.


I had been several years in this country (Damara Land) before I knew of the existence of this pretty Finch, or rather Sparrow. Could I possibly have overlooked it? I scarcely think so. A few


isolated specimens may have escaped me. Lately, at all events, I have discovered it in considerable numbers, particularly this year (1863). Numerous families were reared at my residence at Otjim- bingue. They build a nest like that of the common European House- Sparrow ; indeed, like that bird, they are partial to the eaves and corners of dwelling-houses and out-houses. In Great Namaqua Land I have found it more numerous, and I have reason to think it is not uncommon in some of the northern parts of the Cape Colony and the Orange River Free States ; but of this latter Nate am not positive. In specimens supposed to have come from the Colony side, the red on the head is clearer, and the colours throughout consider- ably darker. There is also, in particular, a strong rusty-brown tint about the breast, wings, &c., not so perceptible in my Damara Land specimens.


Sparingly scattered over Damara and Great Namaqua Land. This year (1863), I have found it particularly abundant in the south of Damara Land. Entire length probably about 84 inches.


Common in Damara and Great Namaqua Land, but I am not sure that it is found as far south as the Orange River. I think not. Where it ceases, Lanius collurio takes its place. It resembles the rest of the true Shrikes in its habits. Pounces upon its prey from some elevated situation.


I found this pretty little Rail first and only at Omanboudi (Cen- tral Damara Land), where it was not uncommon, but very shy and retired in its habits. It bred at Omanboudi; but I did not succeed in procuring the nest.

2. List or A COLLECTION OF BrirDs FROM HUAHEINE, Society’s Isuanps. By P. L. Scuatrer, M.A., Pu.D., F.R.S., Secre- TARY TO THE SOCIETY.

Mr. J. H. Gurney having received a small collection of birds from Mr. James H. Wodehouse, H. B. M.’s Consul at Raiatea, Society Islands, has requested me to look them through and to determine the species, which I have had great pleasure in doing.

The series only embraces ten species, but some among them are of much interest. Our best information on the Pacific avifauna is derived from Mr. Cassin’s volume on the Mammalogy and Ornitho- logy of the U.S. Exploring Expedition under Commodore Wilkes,’ to which I have given references in most cases.


1. Tarare orairrensis, Less.: Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 159. A single specimen of this characteristic Pacific form.

2. Topirampuus TuTUS (Gm.): Cassin, J. ¢. p. 206.

Two examples of this species, one of which is not quite mature, the blue on the head and back being tinged with greenish, and the white below with yellowish.

3. EupyNamis Tairensis (Sparrm.): Cassin, J. ¢. p. 248. One example of this Cuckoo.

4. Pritonopus CHRYSOGASTER, G. R. Gray, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 48, pl. 54.

It is very satisfactory to have an ascertained locality for this beau- tiful little Fruit-Pigeon, which is closely allied to P. purpuratus (Gm.), of the neighbouring island of Tahiti. Other species of the same form are P. fasciatus of the Samoan Islands, and P. coralensis of the Paumotu group. Indeed every island-group of the South Pacific appears to have one or more representatives of this genus of Fruit-Pigeons.

5. Heropias suGuaris (Forster): Gould, B. Austr. vi. pl. 60.

One specimen in the bluish-grey plumage of this widely spread species.

6. Toranus rncAnus (Gm.).—T" oceanicus, Less. et Cass. 1. ¢. p. 318.

One example of this widely distributed Pacific species.

7. ANAS SUPERCILIOSA, Gm.: Gould, B. Austr. vii. pl. 9.

One example of this Australian Duck, which has a wide range in the Southern Pacific.

8. SreRNA POLIOCcERCA, Gould, B. Austr. vii. pl. 24.

9. Anous stotipus (Linn.): Gould, B. Austr. vii. pl. 34. A very widely distributed species.

10. TacHYPETES PALMERSTONI (Gm.): Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 359.

One example of the Pacific Frigate-bird, if really distinct from T. aquila, as maintained by Cassin, J. ¢.

The following extracts from Mr. Wodehouse’s letter to Mr. Gurney (dated Raiatea, September 3rd, 1863) give some particulars concern- ing these birds. I have inserted the scientific name after the native name in each case :—

‘<I forwarded in May last from here, per John Williams,’ bound


for Sydney, a box containing some specimens of birds, inhabitants of this group. It so happened that at the time they arrived from the neighbouring island of Huaheine, we were busily engaged packing up two boxes of things for England, vid Sydney, and I had no time to do more than pin on to each of the birds its native name, reserving an account of their habits, &c., for a future time.

«The ‘John Williams,’ missionary barque, would have had to perform a circuitous voyage to Sydney, where the box