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MALAYALAM AND ENGLISH

DICTIONARY

BY

j .

Rev. H. GUNDERT, D. Ph. RS BSM ea I~

MANGALORE / 7 PUBLISHED BY C. STOLZ / BASEL MISSION BOOK & TRACT DEPOSITORY

] 87 2. LONDON BASEL TREBNER & Co. MISSIONSHAUS

COPYRIGHT RESERVED By Registration under Act XXV of 1867.

“wae.

ere

PREFACE.

The materials for this work have been collected during more than twenty-five years’ study of the language. The words have been taken from all available sources, from the lips of speakers of all ranks, castes and occupations, from the letters and records of many different districts, and from the writers in prose and poetry of every age. A list necessarily imperfect of the literature which has been ransacked for contributions, will be subjoined under the head of Abbreviations.

2. It has been found difficult to draw the line of demarcation between Malayalam and Tamil words. These two languages of old differed rather as dialects of the same member of the Dravidian family, than as separate languages; in consequence many Tamil words occur sill in local usage (e. മു. അച്ചം, അട in some of its senses) or in time- honored phrases and formulas (e.g. അനുപ്പുക അമെയുകൃ പുരാ൯)., which have long ceased to be used in colloquial speech. A consider- able number of such have been received and marked as aM. (ancient Malayalam). They cannot be dispensed with, if the Dictionary is to give a true representation of the history of the language. This history commences for us (if we except a few inscriptions on copper and stone) with the Rama Charitam, in which we probably have the oldest Malayalam poem still in existence, composed as it was before the intro- duction of the Sanscrit alphabet and deserving of the particular attention of the scholar, as it exhibits the earliest phase of the language, perhaps centuries before the arrival of the Portuguese. For several antiquated words (such as GeYe, അറം, 11. അജം) this poem is the only authority. The bulk of the other great poems, the Bharatam, Ramiaya-

117 PREFACE.

nam, and the versions of the Puraizas were composed within the two or three last centuries. As these constitute the popular literature of all Malayalam readers, no Dravidian word found in them has been excluded. On the other hand there are many Malayalam composi- tions of later date, especially such as are current among the Védantists, which evidently affect Tamil modes of expression. These have been excluded if not supported by other evidence.

3. To determine the amount of Sanscrit words to be received into a Malayalam Dictionary has been a task of even greater difficulty. As this Dictionary is not intended for the use of Sanscrit students, the rule followed in compiling it has been to include only those words and meanings that were found in bond fide Malayalam productions; to sift and reduce the enormous mass of mythological and botanical names and synonyms, many of which are confessedly very doubtful; to record merely the principal signification of words confined to poetical usage; and to devote particular attention only to those terms which are gene- rally accepted as fairly “domiciled” in Malayalam and which have in the course of naturalization received various applications not to be met with in pure Sanscrit (e. ഇ. അന്യായം, അവസരം).

4. The idioms and significations peculiar to Southern Kérala or Travancore, have been carefully collected both from the productions of the Cottayam Press, and from the very valuable Dictionaries com- piled by the Portuguese and Italian Missionaries of Verapoli; works which, although completed in 1746, rest upon materials accumulated in the 17th, perhaps even 16th century, and rank as the oldest monu- ment extant of the study of Indian languages by Europeans. (They are marked in the Dictionary V1. & V:2.). Still greater care has been bestowed upon the language of Northern Kérala or Malabar proper (with the Békal Talook of Canara); and explanations of the histori- cal names, castes and dynasties (comp. അകത്തുടു, അടിയോടി, അമ്മാമന്‍, അല്പ൪, അവരോധം, അസ്ഥിക്കുറെച്ചി) and of the institutions, usages and traditions, by which this province differs so singularly from the surrounding countries (see for instance, അങ്കം, അടിമ, അനുഭവം, അപ രാധം) have been drawn from every trustworthy source. Amongst

PREFACE. Vv

the sources for this kind of information I would particularly point out the old Tellicherry Records (TR.) as conveying a mass of instruc- tion in the best prose of the language.

5. The object being to present a faithful picture of the whole Malayalam tongue, the writer has not felt at liberty to exclude the foreegn words which have of necessity crept into the language. The Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, Portuguese and even English terms, which the commerce of centuries and the conquest of foreign creeds and arms with new laws and arts have introduced along this coast, cannot be proscribed, whatever regret their prevalence may excite in the purist. They do not, of course, claim the same minute investi- gation and treatment, which belong to words, whose birthright and position 1൩ the language are indisputable. (See for Ar. അള്ള, അമാ നം, അമീര്‍, അമ്പര്‍, @eejas; for P. അങ്കാമി, അജിമാശി; for H. അമാര്‍, അമല്‍, അമ്പാരി; for Port. അനനാസ്‌; for E. അഫില്‍).

6. 128107 the same reason, that provincialisms and vulgarisms have not been rejected, though they are pointed out as such (f.1. അം സ്ഥം, അനുവാസം under അവസരം, അനുവാദം), To discard coarse and even obscene modes of speech, has not been thought advisable, how- ever much their existence and currency may be regretted. They are marked “obsc.”, as was done by the fathers of Verapoli in their day, that they may be avoided. Under all these heads 2—6) the student will of course have room for candid allowance concerning omissions and superfluities.

7. The writer has throughout endeavoured to trace the origin of each word; and particular attention has been paid to the comparison of the cognate Dravidian languages. He has not been successful in every instance (e.g. അത്താറ )$ sometimes the unimportance of the word, as m the case of provincialisms, prevented him from prosecut- ing his search to the end.

8. The arrangement chosen has been, to point out as far as possi- ble the root and origin of each word, to give first its primitive sense and to add the figurative and free senses in a rational order; lastly to illustrate then by examples taken from reliable authorities. The

VI PREFACE.

different constructions in which the same word occurs (e.g. അലം രിക്കും, its various applications (e.g. അടങ്ങുക), allusions to the tra- ditions and superstitions of the people (അട്ട, അരണ), standing phrases (അടക്കം, അവസ്ഥ) and proverbial expressions (അട്ടം, അതിബുദ്ധി, ത്യാശൂ അന്‍പു, അമ്പാഴം, അശ്വിനി, അള), these points have been es- pecially considered in selecting the illustrations. The Compounds and Derivatives are arranged under each leading word in alphabetical order, but are not treated at the length that appeared necessary in the case of the parent words.

9. The orthography of each word is fixed at the head of the article which treats of it, but in the illustrations deviations are allowed, when they exhibit a current pronunciation (e.g. അടെപ്പ, അടപ്പ), or are borne out by the constant usage of some locality or caste (അമുതു, അമ രേത്തു), or when, as in the case of the numerous Tadbhavams, it is caused by the inequalities of the Sanscrit and Dravidian alphabets (e. ഉ, അത്തം, അത്ത).

10. It cannot be expected that the work should be compressed within the same compass as the Rev. Mr. Bailey's Dictionary. Not that the latter will always be found the more concise of the two. It is one of the chief defects of that, otherwise valuable, work, that it does not discriminate between Malayalam and Sanscrit terms and leaves the student completely in the dark, both as regards the ety- mology and the proportional importance of words. For it concedes to unknown and useless words (e.g. അജത്തുംഗി, അമുണാളം) as well as to those that are comparatively unimportant (as ഇതി, ച) more space, than to words of the genuine native stock that occur frequently in idi- oms of daily current use (e.g. അടുക്കുന്നു, അല്ല). In consequence it will be found, that the Sanscrit part of the present work (see for instance the compounds with അനു, അപ, അഭി) occupies less space than was the case in the former Dictionary, and this without any detriment to the subject matter. The progress made in the study of Sanscrit subsequent to the appearance of Dr. Wilson’s Dictionary (on which the Sanscrit portion of Mr. Bailey’s work is based) has enabled the writer to throw new light even on this part of his task.

PREFACE. vil

On the other hand he has endeavored to condense the matter present- ed into the shortest possible space. What is obvious has been omitted, many secondary words are but slightly noticed and a liberal use has been made of abbreviations. By these means it is possible to publish the whole work in one portable volume; smaller than Rottler’s Tamil or Reeve’s Canarese Dictionary.

11. The student may at the beginning be embarassed by some of the abbreviations adopted (for instance V for root;+plus as in അവ൯, which is composed of G+ 00; the figures (2) (3) which point to that sgnification of the parent word from which the derivative is deducible, (as അകകുരാം (3) to അകം 3., the mind). Also the absence of the common signs 8., adj. may startle him at first sight. They have been deliberately abandoned. What, for instance, is the use of calling അച an adj., which indeed it is in Sanscrit, when the example subjoined 2499.24060800 shows that in Malayalam it is used as anoun? Or why thould അകൃതം be called an adj. and അകൃത്യം a subst., whilst in 8. both are equally adjectives and in Malayalam strictly speaking both are nouns, though poetical usage may treat them more or less as adjectives. Can the indefinite Numerals, such as അനേകം, അസാരം be called adjectives, or have composition-cases like അകത്തേ a claim to that name? It seems to be of more moment to show by examples, how the words are applied, than to pretend to classify them by the utterly incongruous nomenclature of the grammar of European languages. Where doubts might arise, the gender, which in most cases is recognizable by the termination, will be found marked, as അമ്പലവാസി m.— സിനി; അഴകന്‍ m., അഴകി. ButsinceMalayalam grammar acknowledges only the distinctions of Nouns, Verbs and In- declinables, the Verb seems to be the only part of speech which re- quires specifying marks. This has been amply done by the abbrevi- ations a. v.=active verb, ൩. v.-neuter verb, CV.=Causal Verb, denV.= denominative Verb, def V.=defective Verb, (for instance ഒള്ളു), adj. V.= adjectival Verb (as അതു, ഇള, aux. V.=anxiliary Verb (f.1. ഇടുക), as also by marking its parts (past, lst and 2nd fut., inf., conditional, adj. and adv. participle, VN.=Verbal Noun, etc.).

Vir PREFACE.

12. An undertaking of this magnitude cannot lay claim to any- thing like perfection as regards either completeness or correctness. But the writer conceives, that a publication of the kind is a desider- atum in Malabar, and that this attempt at supplying it will be found serviceable to the cause of education in that province. Should it one day be superseded by a work approaching nearer to the standard he has had in view, he hopes that he will be found to have at least furnished a stock of valuable materials, that will under all circum- stances render to his successors a not unwelcome assistance in ther toilsome task, in the same way that he in Azs has received aid from the accumulated labours of his predecessors.

NOTES BY THE PUBLISHER.

1. The Transtiteration, adopted for the leading words upon Dr. Lepsius’s system, is mainly given to assist European students 4 the language, who may feel the need of such shelp. This system follows the pronunciation sad is fully explained ander the head ‘‘Trane- lteration’’. literated in their original sbape.

2. Sanscrit Roots. It is necessary to make a few remarks regarding the form of the Senserit roote and words which are given in this Dictionary. 1൩ the South of India the Grammar of Panini is alone studied, and it is indeed the greatest work on Sanscrit Grammar, but roots

Foreign words are usually trane-

sed words are not always given here in the forms which a student of Panini would expect. In every grammar it is necessary to adopt some couventional way of indicating the changes that roots and words formed from them undergo, and for this purpuse there is in Panini’s Grammar an elaborate apparatus of letters added to roots, and which are called anu ban dha, and even letters which form part of the root iteelf are arbitrarily eheaged. 80 we find in the Dhatu-patha (or list of roots) étha for stha, and hrn for hr. The Grammars of Vopadéva, saka- tayana ote. havea totally different set of such letters. Philologists in Europe have found that it is an improvement to change the Indian sys- tem im some respects, and the authors of the St. Pecersbarg Dictionary * of Sanscrit, which is by far the best and most complete, have adopted this view. Philologiste have come to the conclusion that the vowels r, ¢ and |i are not primitive, s0

* Sanscrit Worterbuch von Bohtlingk & Roth.

in this Dictionary Dr. Gandert generally gives according to this view as adopted by the authors of the 8. Petersburg Dictio- nary. The roots which end in the above vowels

words

will here be found ending in r, ¢.g. dr is given 80 also the numerous nouns signifying an agent whieh

asdar; dhras dhar; br as bar.

end in r would here be given as ending in ar; e.g. kartras kartar. So also diphthongs which terminate roots inthe dhatupatha are considered as secondary, and thus instead of gai we find ga; and sa instead of 80. Natives of India who consult Dr. Gundert’s work must not be led away by the idea that the only right or possible ways of representing Sans- crit roots and words are those which Indian A little

experience will convince them that the contrary

Grammarians have found convenient.

ia the case.

3. The Dravidian element in Sanscrit. <A number of words apparently of Sansorit origin have, on closer examination, turn- ed out to be merely Sanscritized Dravidian words. The author of this Dictionary, in a

German paper on this subject, hae pointed out * mapy such words ¢.g. kéytiram, putran, markadan, viraljlam,etce. Their reception and especially that of puttayam into Sans- orit may, as the author observed, be considered a strong proof of a once fluuarishing Literary period in the Deccan, whenever that time may - have been. Sometimes the words or roots of both languages coincide, withoat however justi-

See also an article by the Rev. F. Kittel In the Indian Antiquary, August 187%. p. 235.

B

x NOTES BY THE PUBLISHER.

fying the prima facie conclusion that the one has borrowed from the other. Further, words commonly taken as Dravidian, will be found to have been imported; doubts regarding the origin The study and

comparison of the Dravidian tongues, though at

of others are still entertained.

present carried on by a very few only, will, it 18 hoped, result in throwing more light on this in- teresting subject.

4. In the arrangement of the Al- phabet a slight but rational deviation, affecting the sequence of 2 letters, has been found necessary, vis: ൪) ക്ഷം, being a compound letter (= &-+ ൧) and consequently akin to (൭ etc., has been plac- ed under and at the end of @.— 5) o follows half r ('), which partakes of the ര: sounds, comp. വേകതിരിക്ക, ധേത്തിരിക്കു, വേറുതിരിക്കു.

5. The long vowels (൭) and ( 9) have been used oonsistently throughout the Dictionary in order to put an end to doubt and vagueness. Their general introduction into writing and printing is highly desirable.

6. Regarding the doubling of con- sonants in Malayalam composition, some diffi- culties were experienced.

a) In Malayalam Compound Nouns, as arule, the consonant is doubled after the long vowels a, 1, U, 6, ei, palatal a, i, fall a, the final consonants r, 1, ],1, after m dropped in Mal. or Sanscr. Nouns (മരത്തോച്പു 34. ഭസ്ുക്കൊട്ട 8, and M.). after short pure a, seldom after u, 11200208

It oocurs often

with i, e.g. ഡഴിക്കേടു and വഴികേടു (മുനി പ്പെരുമാംം, ബുഭ്ധിതിരക്കു 8. and M.) even after dropped m, e.g. അകതാര്‍, 18 often optional after final consonants, e.g. തട്ടി Grae കളി, മുഗചെടി etc., not observed in കൈകായ്യം ete.

b

=

In Compounds of Nouns and Verbs, e.g. മതിപോരുക, കൈതൊഴ്ചക, reduplication is not required; it may however occur after

Accusatives; with some adverbial participles

85 6. ൦. തങ്ങളെക്കൊണ്ടു, ഏന്നെച്ചൊല്ലി eto. it cannot be spared.

Cc

~~

In Compounds of Verbs with Verbs redu- plication is necessary after the Infinitive, e. g. വെളു.ക്ുത്തേ.്ചു and the past tense in i, ¢. g. തിക്കിത്തിരക്കി etc. In the case of ആയി the metre decides it, ¢.g. p. 127 ഉണ്ണിത്വമായിക്കു ിയ്യം, p. 158 ഉരഗരായിചെന്നു(ടടയ്‌ , യ) etc.

These rules and their exceptions, as set forth by the author of this Dictionary in his Malaya- Jam Grammer (see Sandhi § 87, Samasaripam §§ 162 —169) and sanctioned by the language, have, in all doubtfal cases, been the guides of the readers of the proofs who are acquainted with North & South Malayalam.

7. 4. complete list of Abbreviations of grammatical and technical terms, works of re- Besides these recourse has been had to 4 modes of shortening

ference, eto. is given separately.

words in quotations, viz:

a) A fallstop after the first syllable implies the whole word which, in this case, is not affected by affixes, Sandhi, eto., e.g. onyanl മോ.(ശം), ന.(ടപ്പുകടിയാന്മാര്‍, ശ.(ക്തി)ക്ക gam, വാ. (യു)ധിനെറ, വ.(ടിധു)മാനാ൯, ധി .(രുതും, വി.(രുതുുടയ, ൮.(രികു)യില്ല ete. An apostrophe (’)after the first syllable points to the omission of one or more letters

b

ww

in the body of the word, e.g. മോ'(ക്ഷ) ത്തേ, മോ'(ക്ഷു)ങ്ങാം, അ'(ഭ്യാസ)ധും, വി? (ശ്രമി)ച്ചാ൯, വി'(8)പാ൯, ധേ'(ധിടുന്നി ല്ലം ധി'(ശ്വൈക)നാഥന്‍ eto.

c) The dash( ) marks the omission of either the first member of a compound, e.g. as ഞ്ഞി: കുരു = പഞ്ഞികുതു, or of the last one, ൦.൭9. പാല : ദേവ = ദേവപാല 680.

d) A dash (—), hyphen (-) or ellipsis (...) in a quotation shows that a word or words have been omitted.

8. The Virama ( ) indicates:

a) That the consonant over which it is plac-

ed is to be pronounced without any vowel

NOTES BY THE PUBLISHER.

It is used also

to indicate an arbitrary division of words

after it, e.g. OW, ശുജ.

in ൭8. sentence which would otherwise be written continuously, ൦. 0. തരളം p. 482 a e@yacons ഒന്നിച്ച്‌ അദ്വൈതമായി reads: പരബ്രഹ്മനത്മോടൊന്നിച്ചപ്വൈതമാ a). This is done for the convenience of the reader.

To show the real and accurate pronun- It is used

also where by the ordinary orthography

b

ത്ത്‌

ciation of the half u as a. this is improperly written as a, e.g. where അവക്കു instead of 008 is found, we write അവക്കു.

9. The mark of quotation (4 ") either points to a literal meaning, f.t. p.991 വേതാ ണ്ഡം “bether”’, or to a word received into Eng- lish, f.3. “godown” fr. കിടങ്ങു eto.

10. The different species ofanimals, plants ete. which come under the same genus in Mala- yalam are mostly to be found under the leading word, see f.4. 1. മാന്‍, ചിറാക, താളി, വണ്ടി, സ്ത്രി, ete. Some of these for linguistic or other reasons may appear under the qualifying word which forms the first member of the compound, /. 4. ധേള്ളപ്പച്ച.

Parts of piants ete. are enumerated under their respective leading words, see f.é. Quow, @ ലാം ete., and are besides to be found separately.

Certain Compounds, which are not to be found under the frst word, should be looked for under the second, f.i. സ്മൂഛഷിമെതിയടി 18 to be fend under tales), ചിത്തരംഗം under Axe, ഉപധിതം under വിതം etc. Moreover lees common Saneerit words compounded with ose or more prefixes msy be found under the timpler worde: അല്യയഹൃതം under വ്യാഹൃതം, ൭. 30822220 under 0322080, സധിസ്കിതം under ചിസ്തിതം, സൃവ്രതികന്‍ ander വ്രതിക൯, eto.

XI

Again regarding a number of Sanscrit compounds, f.i. വി-ദ്രൂമം, വി-പ്ര-ലംബം etc. additional in- formation may be gathered by referring to the simple word.

11.

for certain compounds under their leading words,

It need scarcely be said that, in seeking

care must be taken to find oat the proper one, f.1. whether acyples belongs to ang, ന, OF മനം, ധെള്ളങെഴുത്തു to വെള്ളം വെള്ള, 592000 to ആടു or ആട്ടു ete.

In fact every leading article should be read through whenever the Dictionary is consulted. By doing thie the student wil! soon be able to find each word in its appointed place, f.i. VN. ധെപ്പൂ and CV. ഖെപ്പിക്കു under വെക്ക, the v.a കഴി ക്ക and അടെക്ക under കഴിയുക and അടയുക, നിറെക്ക under നിറ etc., the v.n. നിറക്കു under നിറം, നിറയുക under നിറം, Matter, which may be omitted in the alphabetical list subjoined to leaders will be found ander their definition. This way of using the Dictionary recommends itself also on other grounds.

Hints thrown out here and there in the Dictionary are intended to foster a epirit of enquiry.

12. The Appendix furnishes supple- mentary matter in alphabetical order.

Though the Publisher as well as the Editor, the Rev. E. Diez, Palghaut, and their respective native assistants have spared no pains to render the book as correct as possible, yet on account of the complicated nature of the work, the typographical difficulties, the distance of the Editor from the Press, and the delay in obtaining information from the author, now in Germany, on doubtful points, a number of errors have crept into the print, which have also been noticed in the Appendix, for tho most part from notes furnished by the author.

Bt

8 3eawr sg ga

Card ഷേ

ka kha ga gha na éa sha ja jh

na

ta tha da dha na ta tha da

PESZZC°°ZISERSESES

TRANSLITERATION

following Lepsius’s Standard Alphabet, 2nd Edition 1863, 2nd postscript.

a. Vowels.

a6 in about » & , far » pin police » fall

rule

» വ.

00211260 r

do. r lengthened

vocalized 1

do. 1 lengthened

§ 10 —85)")

ag)

& ഒന അം

(GYO 8

b. Consonants.

as ka in kalendar

the same aspirated as ga in gallon

the same aspirated as bg in singing as cha in chapter

the same aspirated as ja in Japan

the same aspirated as nya in banyan the cerebral ta

the same aspirated the cerebral da

the same aspirated the cerebral na the true dental ta

the same aspirated the true dental da

SCRZRSPECFES BEEBE

PPR ES FS

8

el, ai ai, ei 0

0

au

am

as ea in head

M. 8.

ea , swear as ei in height

as ai in kaiser

as o in collect

0 , vote ou , house

um , fulcrum

ളു, vocalized h

dha na pa pha ba bha ma

ya ra ta la

va

§ 36 68) 1. a. Initial.)

the same aspirated

the true dental nua

pa in paternal

the same aspirated

ba in balloon

the same aspirated

ma in maternal

ya in yahoo (German j) palatal r

cerebral r (German r) la in laborious

va in variety (soft English palatal sh

cerebral sh (English sh) sa in salute

ha in harangue

cerebral | cerebro-palatal |

1) The §§ refer to Dr. Gundert’s large Malayalam Grammar, Mangalore 1868.

൭) [൪ marks final half u in most Dravidian words, many foreign words & Tadbhavas (difft.

e.g. Tory) § 17].

8) See the remarks on each letter.

6th Varga (റ) is treated farther on.

c—e refer chiefly to the 5 Vargas & o1 S @ J; ¢

From a—e ചട തവാ are pronounced as surd explosiv:

TRANSLITERATION. xl

8. Final ak onbn ൯൪൭ Gaom Wy ൪: ത] do] ഴ്‌ e. Followed by a Consonant.

kta ക്വ kva As kha ഗ്ന gna ഗ്ഡ gdhe

BD oj, bya at sshra 29 dtha Sem ൨൭ ആത്ധ 31൨൭ ത്ഥ ttha mg) tthya ത്ന tna ദ്ധ ddha G2 dhna az 118 പ്പ pla ബൂ 005 ബ്ര bra

Iba ശ്ച 866 omy ska &p ska eto. ro, yka Og. Ika ge Ika (cp ല്ല Og Iva & 18).

൪. Doubled.

മാക്ക kka ങ്ങ nha

ക) 668 മമ്മു 45 ഞ്ഞ 2൭

ട്ട tte Q8 dda gra ame

ത്ത tta ദു dda am nna & hha”)

പ) Ppa 62) 11൭ മ്മ mma 610,

e. Following r (').5) ക്ക മീശ ഗു മജ 288 tq, ra റു നമ

ത്ത rte ദു സിമ ൬൩ ma പ) 62) rba eto. 2. Combined with Nasals. (89 88, 84)®)

nga (ംഖ ikha) oN) 2൧6 emi hj (ഞ്ഞ 12612) nj ene so nda oyu nda ന്ത nda nda മ്വ ൬1൭ സ്പ tba ബബ mba

23 8 &

3. Between 2 Vowels. (g g 36—48)”) ya W ga ja (is) 3 je da da 48 da as ba ba 1 Oe 8 27 ദുര ay br ory by

1) For final o see 8 § 83, 84, 85; for ab & ല്‍. seo farther on.

2) Where ae, 2), അ, പ്പ have originated from euphony 87), they are represented as single letters, 7.1. ചവക്കായ Save-kay; (different is അപ്പൂറം etc.).

3) For the difference of nna & nna see farther on.

4) Final a (gy) is often rendered s.

5) These, under the influence of r, are pronoanced somewhat harder than initials, yet the single cansonant suffices for transcription. (Comp. Sansor. അക etc.; exceptions e.g. കാത്തിക eto.).

6) ചട തപ are pronounced here as sonant explosives &:

7) As fricatives. About the Dravidian n (൯) see foll. b.

XIV | TRANSLITERATION.

4. Peculiarities.

a. ല്‍, besides expressing final 1, serves also for Sanscrit ത്‌ t, which in Malaya- jam is pronounced 1, f.i. in ഉത, തത, മല്‍ etc; അത്ഭുതം, ഉത്സാഹം, താല്‍പയ്യം, ചമതകാരം, ഗല്ലദം, oto. (These are in Sangorit amat-kare, gadgads, etc.).

2, M&O. The Malayalam has two different n, viz: the true dental (4th Varga) and the Dravidian (dento-gingival) (> (6th Varga, page 523). The distinct pronunciation of both is still in use, but not nowadays, (as is the case with the Tamil),

the consistent writing of the characters representing it.

The dental (n) occurring as initial and combining with the Dentals (nd, nth, nd, ndh) is unmarked; but dental ന്ന (originating from +0, see 523, & ന്ത) is marked by a grave accent (id), Both have dental pronunciation.!)

The Dravidian orb (i), besides being final (൪), combines with © in Amdo ids (Gen. Sing.), sometimes with in സ്പ (also written മ്പ) Aba, with മമ (Plur.) ന്മാര്‍ amar (= ൯മാ൪), or it results from the phonetic change of തല്‌ & ത്‌) before 523, and, in contradistinction ton combining with Dentals, this 18 markedby a grave accent and pronounced dento-gingivally.

As this preponderates between vowels it has been left unmarked in transcrip- tion; all such n & nn (twithout the grave accent) point therefore to ൯, ൯൯ and are pronounced 2007010217.)

c. © (6th Varga) has three different pronunciations.°) 1. © doubled (ററ) is marked tta (resembling tt in utter), 2. combined with (൯൨) is marked ൪08 (resembling nd in binder),

3. initial and medial © is marked 7,

1) So the pres. (8 204) and cm, mo, ന്നു past tense (8 8 217 —221) of Verbs (നിന്നു Abl. Sing. & Plur.) and the corresponding adj. participles.

2) So Dat. & Aco. of aqaaim § 115 ff.

8) *The pronunciation of the letter റ്‌" in ററ & ൯റ “contains 80 little of the r-sound, that “we now prefer, with Dr. Gundort, to give to these new sounds a new diacritical sign, preserving “the necessary basis of t &d, and to write¢ & d.” (Lepsius, 818). ററ has semi-dental, abo dento-

gingival pronunciation.

ab.

Abl. abr.

abs. abstr. XN. ൫൫.

ace.

Aee.

A. D. adj.

adj. P. adv., advil. adv. P. Adv. Adv. 8. AK.

al.

aM.

ABBREVIATIONS.

above. Ablative (case). abridged. [lute manner. the case absolute, or in an abso- abstract Noun. ancient Canarese. according to. Accusative (case). Anno Domini (the Christian era). adjective. do. Participle. adverb, adverbial. adverbial Participle. Adwaitam. Adwaita Shatekam. Agoana Kutharam. (Cottayan). alias, otherwise, elsewhere. ancient Malayalam.

Amara 8. (K.) Amara Simham (Kosam).

a med. Anach. Aaj.

8 %

ancient Medical Treatises in prose.

Anacharam.

Anjedi (poem).

Nomen proprium, proper name.

Appendix.

Adhyatma Ramayanpan.

Arabic (tongee). [yam 1881,

Arbuthnot A J., Selections, Cotte-

Architecture.

arithmetic, arithmetical.

482046 Hydayam.

astrology.

astronomy.

ancient Tamil.

auxiliary Verb.

Bailey B.: Mal.-Engl. Dict. 1846. (& Scripture Tranal.).

before.

below.

Bengali (tongue).

BhadrD. Bh. D. | Bhg. BhgV.

Bhr.

BR. (BalB.) Brhm P. Buch.

C.

6.

Cal.

Cal. KU. Can. Carnamr. CartV. CatR. caus. CC., (CCh.) ofr.

CG. Cher. Chin. Chintar.

Bhadra Dipam, or Bhadra Dipa- pratiétha.

Bhagavatam.

Bhagavata Vyakhyanam.

Mahabharatam.

Bala Ramayanam.

Brahmanda Puranam.

Buchanan J: a journey through Mysore, eto. London 1807, 8 Vol.

Cavarese (tongue).

case.

Calicat.

Calicut Kerala Utpatti.

Cannanore.

Kryéna-,or Rama-Karnemrtam.

Kartaviryarjune Katha.

Catechismus romanus, Rome.

causal.

Oréna Charitam.

confer = compare.

Crina Gatha.

Cheta-nadu.

Chinese (tongue).

Chinta-ratnam.

Chint. R. (ChR.) Chintamani Ratnam.

Chir. doc. Christ. Ch8. ChVr. Coch KM, Co, KN, Col.

coll. T. oom. comp. Compr. Cond. contr.

corr.

Chiraca] documents. Christian.

Chalana Shastram. Chaturdasa Vrttam. Coohi Kerala Mahatmyam. Colattiri Kerala Natakam. Cola-nadu.

colloquial Tamil. commonly.

compare, comparison. Comparative.

Conditional.

contracted.

corrupted, corraption.

XVI

correl.

Cpds.

CrArj.

CrP. C8.

Cur.

CV. D. Dakh. Dat, def V. denV. der. desid. dict. difft. dim. distr. DM. DN. doo. Dray.

EM. emph,

epist. Er.

esp.

Esthn.

euph. Ear. ex. expl. f.

f. i. fig. Finn. 92. foll. Fr.

ABBREVIATIONS. correlative. fr. Compounds, freq V. Crénarjuna Yuddham. fut.

Créi Pattu (about agriculture), | G. Kanacku Saram. Gan. Curian G.: an Essay on the Mal. | Ge.

ഒന്ന, Church etc., Cottayam 1872. | gen. Causal Verb. [Madras 1863, | Gen.

Day F, the Laud of the Perumals, | Genov. Dakhani (tongue). Ger. Dative (case). GoP. defective Verb. Gond denominative Verb. Govt. derivative. GP. desiderative (verb eto.) gram .(അ). dictionary. H. different. Heb. diminutive (noun), H. 0. distributive. HNK. (HK.) Devi Mahatmyam. hon. Damayanti Natakam. Hor. (HV.) docament, documental, Hang. Dravidian. huntg. English; East (region). Hyd. Ekadadi Mahatmyam. id. emphatic, emphatically. 1. രം

Eli Pattu (about oats & rats). imit.

epistolary (style). Era-nadu. especially. Esthonian (tongue). euphenistic. Europe, Earopean. example,

an expletive or expletively. feminine gender. for instance. figuratively.

Finnio (languages). finite Verb. following.

French (tongue).

from.

frequentative Verb.

fature tense.

Greek (tongue).

Ganita Shastram.

German (tongue).

generally.

Genitive (case).

Genovefa (Rom. Cath. poem). Gerund (gram.).

Gnana-pana.

(a Dravidian language). Government.

Guna-patham, Cottayam. grammar, grammatical term. Hindustani (tongue). Hebrew (tongue). [pany. The Honorable East India Com- Harinama Kirtanam.

honorary, honorific.

Hora Vyakhyanam.

Hungarian (tongue).

hunting.

Hyder Ali.

idem =the same.

id est =that is.

imitative (sound).

imp. (impers.) impersonal.

Imper. indef. Inf. Interj- inscr. Instr. Intens. inter, intr.

i. q.

Imperative.

indefinite.

Infinitive.

Interjection.

inscription.

Instrumental (case).

Intensive.

interrogative.

intransitive.

id quod =the same as.

Jerdon C.T.: the Birds of India Calcutta 1862, 2 Vol.

Jewish Documents,

judicial papers.

Mo. Pra.

ABBREVIATIONS.

Kadattuwa-nadu.

Keivalya Navanitam. Kerala Mahatmyam.

Kerala Natakam. (ki’s Ram.). Kerala Varma Ramayanam (Valmi- Kerala Utpatti. Kumaraharana Katha. Latin (tongue).

literally.

local, local usage.

Locative (case).

Laxmi Parvati Samwadam. Malayalam (tongue). masculine gender.

Mahrathi (tongue).

Malabar (country). Malapuram (place). Malayan (tongue).

A collection of Mantrams. mathematics.

Mrge Charitam (Cottayam). medical, medicinal.

metaphorically.

military. [mams. Marmamany, old treatise on Mar- modern. [Day.)

Moxadayaka Prakaranam. (Mox.

Mpl. (Mapl.) Mappillas, Malabar Mohammedans.

MP. (Matay.). Matsya Puranam.

MR.

MS., MSS. Mud. myth.

Nal.

Xasr.

XN,

a.

neg.

Meg V. Sid.

3.N.

Xo., NoM.

(1856.) Collet Ch., Malayalam Reader.

Manuscript, Manuscripts. (tram). (Chanakya Sit- mythology, mythological.

Nala Charitam.

Nasranis.

Name, Noun, North.

Mudraraxasam

neuter gender; negative. negative.

Negative Verb. Nidanam, Cottayam. Name and surname. North, North Malabar.

Nom. NS. obj. 001. obs. 01080. Onap. Onomat. opp. orig. P, Palg.

Palg. exh.

part. pass. Pat R. Pay. phil. pi. pleon. Plin. po. Port. pos. p. p- PP. PR. PrC, prec. prep. pres. prh. prob. pron, prov. PT. Ptol. ൮.൬. RamK. RC,

Rel. Part., Pron.

rev., Rev.

XVI

Nominative (case). Nyaya Shastram. objective. oblique case. obsolete. obscene. Ona Patta. Onomatopoia (Imitation of sound). opposite. originally. Persian (tongue). Palghaut (district). do. exhibition 1867. participle. passive, Patala Ramayanam. Payantr Pattu. philosophy. plural (number). pleonastio. Pliny. poetic usage. Portuguese (tongue). positive (opp. negative; degree). participle of the perfect passive(S.). Pattan Pana, Cottayam 1844. Prasna Riti. Prahlada Charitam. preceding. preposition. present tense. perhaps. probably. pronoun. proverbs, proverbial. Panchatantram, in 2 versions. Ptolomy. quod vide= which see. Rama Katha. Rama Charitam. Relative Participle, Pronoun.

revenue papers, revenue term.

2 17111

Rh.

Rom. Cath. R8,

8.

Sah. SahM. 8൫൩൦1.

Sank. Ach. Sor.

8G.

Shv.

sic

SidD. Sil.

simp.

sing.

815. (SP.) SiR.

Sit Vij.

Sit Vrit. Sk.

Soc.

80. Can. 8൦. & SoM. Som.

Som. Mah. 88h.

Stuti

Such. Mah. Superl. superst. Sv., Swarg.

Swarg Kaly.

Syr. T.

t. Talip. Tanutr. Tatw. Tdbh. Te, Tell.

7 2

ABBREVIATIONS.

Rheede’s hortus malabaricus, 1689. Roman Catholic.

Ramayana Saokirtanam. Sanecrit; South (region). Sahadeva Vakyam.

Sahya Mahatmyam.

Sankranti Mahatmyam. ShankaraAcharya’shistory(prose). Scriptural (Bible).

Santana Gopalam (2 versions). Shabari Vakyam. [eto.). = thus (so met with in Granthams Siddhanta Dipika.

Shilavati Pattu. [ prefixes. simple, i.e. Verbor Noun without singular (number).

Shiva Puranam.

Shiva-ratri Mahatmyam.

Sita Vijayam.

Sita Vrttam.

Skandam Puranam.

Social (case).

South Canara.

South, South Malabar. Somavara-Pattu.

Somavara Mahatmyam. Shilatamra Shasanangal. different Stutis of Gods. Shuchindra Mahatmyam. Superlative.

superstition.

several Swargarohanam. Swargarohana