[ARMERS [ataLocuE

of

Implements and Machinery

and of

Garden ‘Tools

With a brief description of the best

Fertilizers.

This ts made up of pages selected from our large Llinsirated Catalogue, which con- tains a fuli description of nearly all our stock. Price of the large Catalogue, $7.

We issue Special Lisis of Seeds and Planis.

Tn ordering by mail from this Calalogue, please specify particularly tha? the ref- erence ts made to the Farmers’ Catalogue and mention tts date.

| hoo. Ben & Co:

Nos. 189 and 191 Water Street, New-York. April, 7868.

Price, . . Twenty-five Cents.

Entered, according to Act o’ Congress. in the year 1968. by R. H. Anien & Co, in the, eles k’s Office of the District Court of the United States. lor the Southern Districtot N=

Mariculhral and Sorticulhural |

The

f anMers (Cataroaue

7

of

Moaricallural and SDorticultural

Implements and Machinery

and of

Garden Tools.

With a brief description of the best

Fertiizers.

“<. \ c

Ret. Allen’ Co:

“189 and 191 Water Street New-York. Lik

4

FERTILIZERS.

The following Fertilizers we recommend as reliable in their composition, and in every respect valuable manures.

Among them we place, first,

K. F. Cor’s SuperpnospHate or Lire.

An experience of many years in the sale of this Superphosphate, as well as our personal knowledge of its effect upon general crops, enables us to recommend it in preference to any other fertilizer in our market.

The following analysis is by Professor Johnson :

Moisture expelled at boiling heat,........... SBt cosa oun ey le: Sand and insoluble substances,.............. og Prive be: 2.14 Combined water, organic and volatile matters,........... 39.10 Vicldine ammonia, ....... .-eser ie ae 2.78

ies 2. < Moves Bite eale ta nceoh ss ee oo. a ieusesvece sve enero ot 1 Bd: Phosphoric acid, soluble,........ + RE RRES: sss ove i ateversteenseags 9.43

oe SOS TNS OLWDLC sie os. 9: ace esememehedas cesvererclea crete pate 1.65, Sulphurici acid! .ks.8 ac). Re PPG Sa cee saa ot 19.87

Oxidesofairon; magnesia, ‘and Joss, cise «ips sis) -vsicn ae See

It is manufactured, under our own supervision, from raw bones, or bone black from the sugar refiners, (which last is pure bone,) with a consider- able percentage of ammonia added. These are dissolved (reduced to their primitive elements) by adding sulphuric acid, which is itself a fertilizer.

The only difference between pure bone and the superphosphate (in ad- dition to the artificial increase of ammonia) consists in its thorough decom- position, in which condition it is readily dissolved in the soil, and can thus be instantaneously taken up by the rootlets of plants. Tor an immediate effect it is obvious that it is decidedly preferable to Ground Bone or even the Flour of Bone; but, in consequence of its more readily yielding its fertilizing properties to the growing crops, its influence in the soil is not so enduring.

It is applied precisely like Peruvian Guano, though it may be used in larger measure without injury to the seed or plants.

It is shipped in barrels of about two hundred and fifty pounds each.

Grounp Bone.

This has been fuily proved one of the best top-dressings for grass lands that can be used, as the constant removal of this crop exhausts the phos- phates from the soil rapidly, and bones abound, beyond any other fertilizer, in the materials necessary to supply this exhaustion. To so great an ex- tent have the phosphates been abstracted from some pasture lands by long continued cropping, that the first application of bones more than doubles the crop, and the grass thus grown is much more valuable for the cattle, as it contains a larger proportion of bone-forming and milk-forming materials.

Animals feeding in a pasture where a portion of it has been dressed with bone, will soon resort to it, and remain there till the herbage is cropped close to the ground.

All crops are benefited by it, where the soil is not already supplied

5

with the phosphates, but those most which are most nutritious for man and beast. The following analysis is by Professor G, A. Liebig, who is well known as one of our most eminent agricultural chemists.

Inorganieincombustible matter. =e -sacis (Hee. aoe 60.61 Containing of bone phosphate of lime,..... 36.63 OreanicenitnozenOus Matter), Se meeeen ces cates 4 oteks oe cts 32.44 Wielding of -ammionia, Urge oe senor ote het 4.54 NVRUGI ce rears sons ct... Shee et oemeran ae LR. ES 6.95

This represents a pure article of commercial bone dust. Baxtimore, Mp., 30th Jan., 1865. G. A. LIEBIG.

From ten to twenty bushels per acre is the usual dressing, though more for a first application is better, as it requires several seasons to fully de- compose it, and the effect of a large application is felt for many years.

It should be sown broadcast on grass land, and harrowed in with the seed, or deposited with the seed in hills or drills when grain or roots are planted.

It is shipped in tight barrels, containing from two hundred to two hun- dred and fifty pounds each.

Fiour or Bone.

This is a new form of bone fertilizer, recently put upon our market, and wherever bones are applied, and an immediate effect upon the crops de- sired, this will be found a very satisfactory manure.

Two grades of this are made: the Floated, which is reduced to powder, and No. 1, somewhat coarser, though finer than the ordinary ground bone. Of both these, the quantity to be applied is much less than of the latter article, but the effect is of course less permanent The Flour of Bone is guaranteed to be pure and unburned bone, with about five per cent of salt to prevent decomposition in the barrel.

The following analysis is by Dr. Hayes, the distinguished State Assayer of Massachusetts :

IMOIsIiren esis She ttls. o's DONG t.c BAe oO eS iol 5.10 Wry amimalimattery.:.,. (5's... . Migetcteeter deiah. erelst« debs & 34.50 @arGondte Ole limMess)).:. .:. .: Teen Me ae ee leleletohdiaiels.d.cleete & 14.10 Bone and phosphate of lime,............. Bees steht. 41.70 Phosphatess: magnesia and irompee) ol) $o.ectsnen ese os 4,20 SaMd aMGMresit. th... ROR. Maite teadatoats Sak ds 0.40

The animal matter here given is perfectly dry, and represents 5 93-00 of dry ammonia, as resulting from its decomposition in the soil. It is shipped in barrels containing about three hundred pounds.

Peruvian GUANO.

This is probably the most concentrated, and by many is still considered the most valuable manure offered to the American farmer. This is owing to the fact that it is derived principally from the excrements of birds sub- sisting entirely on fish, which yield even richer deposits than those of our

6

gallinaceous fowls, which, as every farmer knows, are the strongest of our animal manures. The other original constituents of Peruvian Guano are the unconsumed remains of fish and birds that have perished, and whose remains and excrements have, by slow decay in an intensely dry climate, where no rain ever falls, thrown off most of their moisture and carbon- aceous matters, which are of minor importance as manure, and left only the highly concentrated salts, every one of which is essential to vegetable growth. This will appear from the analysis given by Dr. Ure, whose statements are of the highest authority, as follows :

Organic matter, containing nitrogen, including urate of am- monia, and capable of affording from eight to seventeen per cent of ammonia, by slow change in the soil,............. 50

Water sll phosphatesor lime, 25,. 2 pytasa)sie2i2hey- fe nie cae cere 36

Ammonia, phosphate of magnesia, phosphate of ammonia, and oxalate of ammonia, containing from four to nine per cent MSPS ARITINO INR > joey eo 6G fo es oR Noile) are ote eet ee pevatet 13

Silicious;matter from the.crops of birds,)....4 04.06. 3.5.5.% 1

The ammonia, as shown above, is the principal ingredient of fertility, but this is largely aided by the phosphates and other alkaline salts con- tained in it, which last, however, can be obtained at much cheaper rates in bones, and in properly made super-phosphates of lime. The ammonia is a stimulant which gives instant and powerful effect to the germinating seed and young plants, producing the rich, healthy green which, under favorable circumstances of warmth and moisture, always characterizes vegetation in soils that have received an application of Peruvian Guano. But such soils must always contain a much larger proportion of other salts than is found in guano, or by its constant use they will soon become exhausted. For these we must look for other and cheaper sources of supply, or a very few seasons will show a diminished crop. The phosphate of lime to be found in bones; the sulphate of lime to be found in plaster of Paris; carbonate of lime in oyster-shell or other quick-limes; potash in wood ashes and decaying vegetable matter, rich turfs, etc. ; and carbonaceous matter fur- nished also from the last sources, peat, clover, and other crops turned under, etc. ; soda from common salt, seaweed, kelp, and the waste derived from these articles, where the soda of commerce is manufactured; and lastly, the ordinary manures of the farm-yards, all furnish materials which are required by successive crops beyond what is furnished by Peruvian Guano.

Appiication.—Reduce the lumps to powder, by grinding or pounding, then sow in drills or broadcast, at the rate of one hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds per acre, and cover lightly with the harrow or other implement, planting the seed directly over it. Dissolved with one hun- dred or more times its weight of water, and sprinkled around the roots of

' plants, especially just before a rain, so that the salts can be washed around

the rootlets, the effect is almost instantaneous and highly beneficial. For grass land, sow broadcast just before a rain. The best effects are more fully secured by first mixing with plaster of Paris, rich loam, etc.

CAST-IRON PLOWS.

Nearty all plows in this catalogue are made from our own patterns, by machinery especially adapted to the purpose. All the sizes of the same number are therefore precisely alike, and if any part be broken a dupli- cate can easily be obtained, and the repairs made on the farm without expense.

In shipment to distant ports it is recommended that all the larger plows be taken apart and packed.

For numbers and style of fitting up all plows, consult the general price- list.

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Fic. 2.—Patent CyLinpErR Piow.

This plow derives its name from the form of the mould-board, which is a segment of a perfect cylinder, with its ends cut in the style of ordinary mould-boards. Its lines are thus always horizontal to the surface of the land, and consequently it turns the furrow-slice with the same uniformity as a wheel on its axle, and with the least possible friction. The friction is still further reduced by the peculiar arrangement of the share and land side, which, combined with its other improvements, reduces the draught from one fourth to one third less than that required by the best class of plows now in general use.

For lightness of draught, simplicity of construction, ease of holding, and certainty of turning all soils of any required depth and width, it far surpasses any other plow.

All the sizes are capable of turning either flat or lap furrows, of any re- quired lap, by using shares suited to various widths, all of which can be supplied; and every furrow may be left concave on the under, and convex on the upper side, which gives the lightest and most friable con-

dition to the soil, admitting of easy and thorough pulverization by a light harrow or cultivator.

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Fic. 3.—Hacue Prow No. 20.

The above cut represents a series of plows ranging from the No. 18, a light one-horse stirring plow, to No. 22, a heavy breaking plow for three horses. They are in general use in the Northern States, as well as a favorite pattern in some parts of the South and of Foreign countries.

Fig. 17, page 17, shows the smallest plow of this series made of steel, but is a good representation also of the iron plow.

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Fic. 4.—Hacte Pirow No. 36.

In this new pattern of plow of our own invention we combine advan- tages hitherto only found in several different kinds.

It can be set so as to turn up the soil shallow or deep, as may be de- sired, and is so shaped as to bury grass, weeds, and trash of all kinds beneath the turning furrow as it moves through the ground.

The series contains seven numbers, of about the same sizes as the style represented by Fig. 3 above.

They are all made with high or low standards, as may be required.

10

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Fic. 5.—Piow No. 19, with One Hanpte.

We give a cut of this plow, made with one handle, as it is frequently so ordered by our friends in some sections of the United States, in Spanish America, and especially on the West Coast of South-America. It differs only in the handles from the plow shown at Fig. 3.

Fic. 6.—Swarp D Prow.

A strong four-horse plow, with a wrought lock-coulter. To this plow is affixed, when required, a sharp, steel-edged share or point, cutting very wide, and a reversed or drag cutter for the purpose of more completely turning over the surface of wet meadows, when drained by ditching.

A crane or dial-clevis, with draught rod, is attached to the end of the beam, which enables the off ox or horse to keep clear of the miry open furrow, so very fatiguing to him, and tread on the unbroken ground, thus making it comparatively easy work for the team, and obviating the great objection to breaking up wet meadows or swampy ground. When the fixtures for meadow plowing are removed, and the original point or share is replaced, the plow is again adapted to the rugged upland soils, thus answering the double purpose of an upland and meadow plow.

138

Fig. 11.—lron Bram Prow.

This is one of a series of two-horse plows, with the beam of iron cast in one piece with the standard.

The shortness of the beam brings the team nearer to the work, thus lessening the draught, and giving the plowman better control of his imple- ment. The great space between the point and the beam prevents clogging in overgrown stubble or sod lands.

The front plow shown in the cut can be raised or lowered or removed entirely, as is the case with the Cylinder plow.

Fic. 12.—Svup-soi Piow.

All sizes of these are constructed on the principle of the Scotch Sub- soil Plow.

They are used by following directly after the plow which turns up the surface-soil, and in the same furrow. This is of great advantage to the crops, both in dry and wet land. In the former, the sub-soil being deeply broken up and well pulverized, the moisture is retained much longer than it otherwise would be, and the roots of plants can descend much lower and wider for their food; while in the latter, the excess of moisture filters below and is readily carried off. They, however, require ‘that the earth below them be sufficiently porous to admit of the escape of an excess of moisture, or their beneficial use is not felt till the land is well drained.

We recommend the use of the draught-rod on all sizes of the sub-soil plows, as we consider it almost indispensable in enabling the off animal to walk on the solid ground, and the plow to work easily in the surface- soil furrow.

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Fic. 18.—Sipr-Hitt or Swivet Piow.

A series of several sizes, from a light one-horse to a heavy four-horse plow. They are so constructed that the mould-board can be instantly changed from one side to the other, which enables the operator to perform the work horizontally upon side-hills, going back and forth on the same side, and turning all the furrow-slices with great accuracy downward. They are much liked at the South; for by this system of turning and laying the soil, it is prevented from being washed into those deep gullies so destructive to the general face of the country.

They are employed by many for level plowing, as this leaves the field without any centre, dead or finishing furrow; nor does it make banks or ridges by turning two furrows towards each other. With a wheel and cutter, the medium sizes are frequently used for turning over mowing land for the purpose of re-seeding in the autumn, as with the cutter they lay the furrow-slice flat, with great uniformity, avoiding the centre and bank furrows, and leaving the land, without any intermediate crop, of the same general level as before plowing. When thus used, they save much labor by allowing the team to turn short about at the ends of the furrows, in- stead of obliging it to travel across the wide ends of each land in the field.

They are useful also for plowing down the banks of ditches, as they carefully turn the furrows from the ditch by carrying the earth upon the level ground.

Rice-Trencninc Prow.

This is made from a pattern furnished by an eminent Southern planter. In trenching a field for the rice-crop it will do the work of many hands with hoes, and will be found a great labor-saving implement for this pur- pose. It is an excellent implement also for opening drills for corn or cotton, and for various root-crops.

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Fig. 14.—Ripeine or Dousie-Mounp Prow.

A plow well known and in very general use over all parts of the United States, and frequently ordered from Foreign countries.

For opening drills to plant potatoes, corn, ete., for ditching, and for plowing out between narrow rows, it is admirably adapted. In this last work it throws the earth both ways to the rows, and does the duty of two single mould-board plows.

It is serviceable also in digging potatoes, when the crop is not sufficiently large to justify the use of a regular potato digger.

The larger sizes are frequently used on small sugar estates, in furrow- ing for the planting of cane.

The upper section of the cut shows the form of the mould-board.

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Fra. 15.—Carpspace Prow.

This is used for the cultivation of cabbages and similar crops, and is a very convenient and useful implement for stirring the soil between the rows.

The mould-board being shortened, as shown in the cut, allows the plow

16

to run close to the plant, and under the spreading leaves, without injuring or throwing the earth over them.

We make this plow of two patterns, No.2 Mand No. 19. Both of these are in all respects like the breaking plows of the same numbers, except in the modification of the mould-board.

SOUTHERN PLOWS.

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Fic. 16.—Priow No. A 6.

The above title will best indicate a number of patterns of cheap cast- iron plows used for stirring, and in some places for breaking up the light soils of the South.

They are made without any extra finish, but of very good material, while the castings are of the best iron, and being cheap, yet strong and efficient, are very largely used on the light soils of the Southern States.

A special list will be furnished of the different styles, but the Fig. 16 above shows their general character, and Figs. 17, 18 and 19, among the Steel plows, represent others.

20

Stee, Cyninper Piow.

The Cylinder plow described on page 8 is made, in the three smaller sizes, of steel as well as of cast iron.

Though this style is comparatively new, it is as rapidly growing into favor among users of steel plows as the cast iron style has done among farmers in general.

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Fig. 24.—Prnow No. X 1.

This is a small pattern of the X series, and worked by a single horse. It cuts from four to six inches deep, and from nine to ten inches wide.

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Fie. 25,—Piow No. X 44.

This 1s one of the same series as the above, fitted with the circular or wheel cutter, as shown in the cut, or with the Peacock cutter, which is represented as attached to the U G 34 plow, Fig. 28.

Without these, which can be easily detached, the plow is suitable for old ground work.

It is a light two or three-horse plow, turning the ground from five to eight inches deep and from twelve to fourteen inches wide,

28

HARROWS.

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Fic. 387.—Scotco Harrow.

This is a double Harrow, as shown in the cut, but, by disconnecting the two parts, either may be used

7 singly.

There is only one size,

: containing thirty-two {: teeth; these are made, : ! however, of different sizes : ! : of iron, and designated as : ? No. 1 and No. 2.

This Harrow, though

Ji: :} wide is light, and particu- i? $4! larly intended for seeding,

or for light lands. No. 1

weighs one hundred and thirty-five pounds; No. 2, one hundred and fifty

pounds.

Fic. 88.—Gerpprs Fotpinc Harrow.

This is generally con- sidered the best of the double harrows. The two side frames, in all the sizes, are joined together by hinges, so that the harrow works over the surface of uneven land uniform- ly, is very conveniently managed in the field, and, when folded, is easily transported about the farm. The teeth are made of the best iron, and the upper end of each is form- ed to fit a mortice made tapering from the lower to the upper side of the timber, with a screw upon

\4 the upper end of the tooth.

They are fastened by nuts, screwed close down upon

‘ron washers, which prevent all liability of the teeth to become loose and drop out. Their position in the framework is such that each one operates distinctly from the others, and the number of impressions made on the soil will be equal to the number of teeth, and at equal distances.

The weights range from eighty-five pounds for the smallest to two hun-

dred and thirty-five for the largest size.

Fic. 39.—Common Sequare Harrow.

This is the simplest and cheapest form of harrow on our list. It is made of three sizes, with fifteen, nineteen and twenty-three teeth respectively. These are tapering in shape, so that when loosened by weather or rough usage they can be driven tight again.

The teeth bars, being riveted at their ends, can not split.

Iuprovep [ines Harrow. of This harrow may be », folded, or separated in- *| to two parts for the || convenience of trans- ] portation or other pur- pose. Hither half may be lifted while the im- : | plement is in motion, o| and the easy and inde- pendent play of the parts up and down up- on the hinges enables the instrument to adapt itself to the surface of the ground in all places, so that whether going through hollows, or over knolls and ridges it is always at work and every tooth has a hold Fie. 40. upon the soil. The teeth stand equidistant and wide apart, so that while from their number and arrangement the ground is worked fine they are not liable to clog. This harrow is made heavy to fit it for rough land and the pulverizing of sod furrows. It can be drawn either end forward, and when the teeth become dull by working in one direction the team may be hitched to the other end, and they become sharp again.

30

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re 41.—S1zer’s Corron Harrow.

A very effective implement for destroying weeds and loosening the soil between the rows of cotton. The teeth are strong and so shaped as to prevent their clogging or loading with earth. When taken apart and packed for shipment this Harrow measures three cubic feet.

Fic. 414. Swares’ Patent Coutter Harrow.

The advantages of this Harrow lie principally in the construction of the teeth or coulters, which are broad, thin blades of cast iron, inclining for- ward so as to prevent their clogging with roots, grass, stones, etc., as well as to cut the sods and force an easy entrance into any kind of soil. The mould-board is attached to, and forms the lower or back end of the coulter, the lower edge of which is continued a short distance below the covering portion of the tooth and forms the point. This serves to elevate the teeth over stumps, stones and other impediments, and also gives them du- rability. In preparing land which ordinarily needs plowing several times for root crops or grain, by the use of this Harrow it is only necessary to plow once, and it will, by its lifting, pulverizing process, prepare and finish the ground more thoroughly and satisfactorily than can be done with the usual styles of harrows, and in less time.

This Harrow is six feet in width when expanded, but when closed for transportation is less than two feet. It is seven feet long and weighs one bundred and fifty-five pounds. '

31

ROLLERS.

Fic. 42.—GarpEen Rowuer.

Since the Hand Roller was first introduced it has been greatly improved in style and variety of forms. It is now made of several sizes, with from one to three sections.

By the addition of weights along the shaft, as shown in the cut, greater weight is obtained, while they are so adjusted that when not in use the handle is thrown up from the ground and kept clean and out of the way.

The cut is faulty in not showing this feature. It seems hardly necessary to add that it is drawn on a larger scale than the Field Roller and Clod Crusher, the sections being never of greater diameter than twenty-seven inches, and usually of twenty inches only.

Fic. 45.—Fieip Rou.er.

These are important implements, and are now in general use. They crush all sods and lumps that remain on the top of the ground after the harrow has passed, and force down small stones level with the surface. They render the field smooth for the cradle, scythe, and rake, press the earth close about the seed and secure a more sure and quick germination.

On light and sandy lands they are invaluable, and in all cases their use has greatly increased the product. Much benefit is undoubtedly found in

32

compressing the surface of such light soils, by preventing the escape of those gases from the manure so essential to vegetation, and which are so rapidly extracted by the sun and winds.

Great advantage is gained by rolling early in the spring while the ground is yet soft. Clay lands, by heaving, pull to pieces and displace the roots of grain and grasses sown the previous autumn, and the heavy roller presses the roots and earth together to their proper position, when vegeta- tion goes on again, and thus, in a measure, prevents what is termed winter killing.

Fig. 43 represents the most approved kind, constructed wholly of iron except the tongue and box which are of wood. ‘These rollers are made of various diameters from twenty to thirty-six inches, in separate sections, each one foot long, placed on a wrought-iron shaft independently of each other, thus turning without much friction and leaving the ground smooth. They are generally used with from three to six sections. If four only are required, thills or shafts may be substituted for the tongue and the roller drawn by one horse, or both may be used alternately according to the team.

The box is attached to receive stones, etc., picked up on the field, and for giving weight to the roller according to the work required.

Extra sizes, with four or five sections of fifteen inches face and five feet diameter have been made for use on roads, and found very efficient for this purpose. Each section in these rollers weighs nine hundred pounds.

To save the cost of transportation to any great distance the iron sec- tions and standards are furnished to order, either with or without the wrought-iron shaft, the wood parts being furnished and attached by any wheel-wright or carpenter in the district where the roller may go.

Fic. 44.—Ciop Crusuer.

This is made from our own patterns, as modified from the original English model, and is strongly recommended to our farmers and planters for heavy clay soils, and for seeding grain or grass lands.

It is made, like the field rollers, in sections, kept apart by washers on the main shaft. It is toothed both upon the face and sides, and thoroughly pulverizes the soil and compacts the surface earth.

Many are now being used upon the sugar estates of Cuba, and are in- creasing in favor with intelligent agriculturists everywhere.

33

GUL TIVAROERS.

A recently invented imple- ment, which, as an easily man- aged Hand Cultivator, is grow- ing rapidly into public favor for gardens and other light work.

By removal of the irons and substitution of others it is changed into a good Seed Sower, as represented by Fig. 57, on page 39,

Fie. 46.—Hanp CuLtivator.

This Cultivator is made entirely of cast iron, except the handle, and ex- pands from ten to eighteen inches. It is used in gardens and often in field culture, among rows of carrots, beets, etc. There is but one size, which has six teeth. These are fastened by a wedge and can be removed at pleasure.

Fie. 47.—Hanp Prow.

A useful implement for hilling between the rows and stirring the soil more deeply than can be done with the hand cultivator.

It is made of cast iron and highly polished. The share and mould are in one piece, and the whole fitted with a sliding gauge and thumb screw for regulating the depth of furrow.

. 34

Fic. 48.—Weepine Hor.

This is a new and patented article, made with one or two wheels, as may be wanted, and used in weeding garden or field crops.

It is light, and managed with ease, as the operator pushes the implement before him while in an upright position, and in full view of the plants.

The blade can be adjusted so as to cut any required depth.

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Fic. 49.—Common Expanpina Cuurivaror.

This is the ordinary form of Cultivator, with teeth of cast iron, and made with or without the front wheel, as shown at Fig. 50.

The wheel, however, is found to be a great improvement, and is recom- mended in all cases, as it causes the implement to move steadily and easily, and assists the operator in getting around the ends of rows and obstruc- tions in the field.

This Cultivator can be expanded to work between rows four feet apart.

It is made with three or with five teeth,

35

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Fic. 50.—Improvep ExpaNbDING CULTIVATOR.

This is made of the same form and size as the ordinary Cultivator, but the teeth are of heavy plate steel bolted to a cast standard, and of such shape that, when worn by long use, they can be reversed, and are then as serviceable as when new.

By the substitution of mould-boards for the rear teeth of this Cultivator, it will throw the earth toward or away from the plants.

In this shape it takes the name of the Long Island Cultivator,

Lae, 51. fee Hor.

This implement is intended for the same work as the Cultivator, and is by some considered an improvement upon the latter.

It is made of three sizes, to suit the various widths required, though none of these can be expanded.

We have another pattern, however, of more recent date, differing slightly from the cut in the form of the front teeth. This can be expanded or con- tracted, like the Cultivators, though not to so great an extent, as it will not thoroughly clean between rows more than three feet apart. We make but one size of this pattern.

Fria. 528.—Howr’s Excensior Currivaror. (Sve page 37.)

37

Howe's Excenstor Sutky Cuntivator.

This is one of the most desirable in this class of labor-saving machinery.

It can be used in the cultivation of nearly all crops planted in hills or drills, till they reach a growth of four feet; also for covering seed or for cross-plowing or harrowing.

In all cases it thoroughly pulverizes the soil, and is not choked by weeds, grass, trash, ete.

The chief point of superiority of this Cultivator is in the attachment of the whiffletree to the beams instead of to the pole, making a direct line of draft and avoiding all strain on the frame and pressure on the horses necks.

The draft is equalized, and the pressure applied to the teeth by pointed pushing braces attached to the cultivators at their rear ends and to the cross-trees under the tongue at their front end.

The tongue is made of two parallel bars, leaving an open space its en- tire length, through which are seen the row, the front shovels, and the feet of the horses. This greatly facilitates guiding the team, and avoids

injuring the plants.

The teeth are suspended in front by swinging pendants, which regulate the depth and keep them upright ; and in the rear, by chains attached to revolving levers for raising and keeping them out of the ground while turn- ing or traveling on the road or fields. They may be placed at any re- quired distance apart, and the earth stirred and thrown toward or from the rows.

They are turned from a direct line in crooked rows, or to avoid obstruc- tions, or to work up to a hill-side, by pressing the feet on the iron stirrups near the wheels.

In case they catch, they are saved from injury by the arrangement of the pin passing through the shank.

The entire machine weighs about four hundred pounds.

CANE CULTIVATOR.

This is an implement of our own manufacture, and like our Hali and Cuba plows, is made with especial referénce to use on the large sugar “estates of Cuba and the other West-Indian islands.

The frame is of the best oak timber and the teeth of heavy plate stecl, secured to the frame by bolts running the entire length of the standard.

The side beams are hinged to the frame so as to allow them to be ex- panded or contracted, to suit the various widths of rows.

It weighs about one hundred and thirty pounds.

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HAND SEED SOWERS.

The several machines shown below have been long in use in this country and in England, and are found to plant all the various small seeds rapidly and with regularity. The cuts represent the machines with the hoppers and apparatus for sowing the small garden seeds, such as onions, turnips, carrots, parsnips, beets, etc.; and also millet and other small grains in drills. They are easily arranged to plant a greater or less quantity, as may be required.

By substituting other hoppers, with different dropping fixtures, peas, beans, corn, etc., may be planted in drills, or in hills from six inches to two feet apart. It is but a moment’s work to exchange one for the other, and in all of them the quantity of seed planted is easily regulated.

The drill is opened, and the seed is deposited, covered, and the soil com- pressed at a single operation. .

SF 3 Seep Sower No. 1.

Seed Sower No. 1, or English Drill, is a size larger than No. 0, though designed for sowing the same kinds of seeds in the garden or field. The cylinder and brush within the hopper are worked by gearing, and thus are always sure to operate.

Fic. 55.—Srep Sower No. 2.

Seed Sower No. 2 combines several important improvements upon the English Drill, particularly in those additions which fit it for sowing large seeds. The brush and cylinder of No. 2, which distribute the seeds, are worked by graduated rows of iron cogs or gearings, which operate simply and uniformly, are durable, and not likely to get out of order, and by which the speed of the dropping may be increased or lessenéd, large or small seeds sown, in all their varieties, at any desirable distances, in hills or drills, The several necessary changes for the purpose are made easily and

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expeditiously. The bruSh is used for small seeds, as turnips, carrots, etc., and the cylinder for corn, peas, beans, ete. Six tins with different sized holes accompany each machine to be used in connection with the brush as circumstances may require,

In structure this is a sim- ple, compact and durable Seed Sower. It adapts it- self to every form and size of seed, makes its own drill, distributes with evenness, screens the seed from dis- persion by the wind and clogging by the rain, covers perfectly and gently presses the earth down to secure that close contact of soil essential to quick germina- tion. The perfect precision and certainty of every part

of the process enables the Fie. 56.—Wernersrictp Seep Dritt. cultivator to sow his lands

in exactly the variety and proportions of crop he wishes, and secures uniformity throughout.

It is worked by cast-iron reeds, instead of with a brush. These vary in size from No. 1, suitable for corn, beans, etc., to No. 8, which is used in sowing turnips and similar seeds, But one size of drill, however, is made,

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Fie. 57.—Harrrieton’s Seep Sower.

This new Seed Sower, which in another form is referred to under page 3, Fig. 45, combines all the important requisites of good drills with the advantage of being easily converted into a Cultivator, as shown above.

All