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MAR -2 1995

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The Catholic Encyclopedia

VOLUME FOUR Gland— Diocesan


















Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908





Copyright, 1908 By Robert Appleton Company

Copyright, 1913 By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC.

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholic Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved.




Contributors to the Fourth Volume

BENIGNI, U., Professor op Ecclesiastical His- tory, Pont. Collegio Urbano di Propaganda, Rome: Codex Vaticanus; Colle di Val d'Elsa; Comacchio; Como; Concordia; Converzano; Conza; Cortona; Coseaza; Cotrone; Cozza- Luzi; Crema; Cremona; Cuneo; Democracy, Christian; Diauo.

BIHL, MICHAEL, O.F.M., Lector op Ecclesiasti- cal History, Collegio San Bonaventura, Quaracchi, near Florence: Colette; Concep- tionists; David of Augsburg.

BOEYNAEMS, LIBERT H., C.S8.CC., Titolar Bishop of Zeugma, Vicar Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands: Damien.

BOOTHM.AN, C. T., Kingstown, Ireland: Digby, Kenelm; Digby, Sir Kenelm.

BOUDINHON, AUGUSTE-MARIE, D.D., D.C.L., Director, "C.inoniste Contemporain ", Pro- FE.SSOR OF Canon Law, Institut Catholique, Paris; Desertion; Desservants.

BOWDEN, SEBASTIAN, The Oratory, London: Dalgairns.

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., Luxemburg: Dalmatic.

BREHIER, LOUIS RENE, Profes.sor of Ancient and Medieval History, University of Cler- mont-Ferrand, PuY-DE-DoME, P'rance: Com- mines; Crusades; Dandolo.

BROCK, HENRY M., S.J., Professor of Physics, Holy Cross College, Worcester, Massachu- setts: Coriolis; Curley; Danti, Ignazio; Daubrde; Denza; Desains.

BURTON, EDWIN, D.D., St. Edmund's College, Ware, Engl.\nd: Clement, C;psar; Clenock; Clerk; Clifton; Codrington; Colet; Constable, Cuthbert; Cordell; Cuthbert, Saint; Daniel, John; Darrell; Davenport, Christopher; De Lisle; Digby, George.

BURTSELL, Very Rev. Mgr. RICHARD L., Ph.D., S.T.D., Rondout, New York: Consanguinity; Crime ; Defender of the Matrimonial Tie.

BUTIN, R., S.M., S.T.L., Ph.D., Jefferson College, Convent, Louisiana: Cleophas; Contant de la Molette; Crelier.

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. Michael's, Farnborough, England: Complin; Cross and Crucifix (Part II. Representations as Objects of Devotion).

BECCARI, C.\MILL0, S.J., Postulator General CAMM, BEDE, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Erdington

OF THE Society OF Jesus, Rome: Confessor. Abbey, Birmingham, England: Clitherow;

TJcru-rtT 1? c T T> rr Davies; Dean, William; Dingley.

BECHTEL, F., S.J., Professor of Hebrew and

Sacred Scripture, St. Louis University, St. CAMPBELL, NOEL JOSEPH, S.J., B.A. (Oxon.),

Louis: Cordier; Core, Dathan, and Abiron; Beaumont College, Old Windsor, Berk.s,

Cornelius (Centurion). England: Covenanters.

ABRAHAM, LADISLAUS, LL.D., Member op Academy of Science at Cracow, Professor op Canon Law, Royal University, Lejiberq, Galicia, Austrli: Cyril and Methodius.

AHERNE, CORNELIUS, Professor op New Test.v- ment Exegesis, Rector, St. Jo.seph's Col- lege, Mill Hill, London: Colossians, Epistle to the; Commentaries on the Bible; Corinthians, Epistles to the.

AIKEN, CHARLES F., S.T.D., Professor of Avoir- OGETics, Catholic University op America, Washington : Confucianism.

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., Downside Abbey, Bath, England: Cliiny; Convent; Convent Schools (Great Britain); Corbie, Monastery of; Corvey; Crutched Friars; Deusdedit, Saint; Dinooth.

ALVARADO, THOMAS CANON, Cuenca, Ecua- dor: Cuenca.

ANGER, HENRY, Litt.B., B.Sc, New York: Delacroix, Ferdinand.

ARENDZEN, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., B.A., Professor of Holy Scripture, St. Edmund's College, Ware, England: Cosmogony; Demetrius (Syrian Kings); Demiurge.

ASTRAIN, ANTONIO, S.J., M.4.drid: Congregatio de Auxiliis.

AVELING, FRANCIS, S.T.D., Chelsea, London: Condition; Deism.

BALESTRI, GIUSEPPE, O.S.A., Professor Emeri- tus OP Sacred Scripture, College of St. Monica, Rome: Cjtus and John.

BANDELIER, AD. F., Hispanic Society of Amer- ica, New York: Clavigero; Cobo; CogoUudo; Colombia; Columbus, Christopher; Condamine; Copacavana; Cordova, Juan de; Coronado; Coronel, Juan; Cortes; Costa Rica; Davila Padilla.

BARNES, ARTHUR STAPYLTON, M.A. (Oxon. AND (Jantab.), Cambridge, England: Counsels.

BAUMGARTEN, Rt. Rev. Mgr. PAUL MARIA, J.U.D., S.T.D., Domestic Prelate, Rome: De Rossi.

BAUMSTARK, ANTON, S.T.D., Teacher in the Catholic Gymnasium of Sasbach, Baden, Ger- many: Cosmas.


CAMPBELL, THOMAS J., S.J., St. Mary's Col- lege, Montreal: Crasset; Croiset.

CANDIDE, F., O.M.Cap., Lector in Philosophy, Capuchin Monastery, Ristigouche, Province OF Quebec: Cochem, Martin of.

CAPES, FLORENCE MARY, London: Colomba of Rieti; Columba, Saints.

CARMICHAEL, MONTGOMERY, British Vice Consul, Leghorn: Clerk.s Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca.

CASSIDY, JOHN JOSEPH, S.J., Woodstock Col- lege, Maryland: Conimbricenses.

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior of St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Birmingham, England: Clementines; Clement I; Cornelius, Pope; Cyprian of Carthage; CjTil of Alexandria ; Cyril of Jerusalem ; Demetrius, Saint; Didache; Didascalia Apostolorum; Didymus the Blind.

CHARLES, BROTHER, C.S.C, Professor of Eng- lish, Scholasticate of the Congreg.ation of the Cross of Jesus, Rimouski, Canada: Cross of Jesus, Brothers of the.

CLEARY, GREGORY, O.F.M., J.U.L., Professor OF Moral Theology and Canon Law, St. Isi- dore's College, Rome: Commissariat of the Holy Land; Gustos.

CLEARY, HENRY W., Editor, "New Zealand Tablet", Dunedin, New Zealand: Cooktown; Dalley.

CLIFFORD, CORNELIUS, Seton Hall College, South Orange, New Jersey: Craigie; Crashaw.

COFFEY, PETER, Ph.D., S.T.L., Professor of Philosophy, St. Patrick's College, May- nooth: Deduction; Dialectic.

COLEMAN, AMBROSE, O.P., M.R.I.A., St. Sav- iour's Priory, Dublin: CroUy.

COLEMAN, CARYL, B.A., Pelham Manor, New York: Cosmati Mosaic.

CORBETT, JOHN, S.J., Associate Editor, "The Messenger", New York: Cornoldi; David, King.

COUDERT, ANTOINE, O.M.I., Archbishop of CoLo.MBO, Ceylon: Colombo.

COURSON, COMTESSE ROGER de, Paris: Com- mune, Martyrs of the Paris.

CURLEY, CHARLES F., A.B., LL.D., Wilmington, Del.\ware : Delaware.

CUTHBERT, FATHER, O.S.F.C, H.*.ssocks, Sus- sex, England: Definitors (in Religious Orders).

D'ALTON, E. a., M.R.I.A., Athenry, Ireland: Clynn; Cogitosus; Creagh; Culdees; Dease.

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in French, College of the City of New York: Copp(5e; Corneille, Pierre; Dareste de la Cha- vanne; Deschamps, Eustache; Didot.

DELANY, JOSEPH F., New York: Correction; Death; Decalogue; Despair;- Detraction.

DELAUNAY, JOHN BAPTIST STEPHEN, C.S.C, LiTT.B., Ph.D., Notre Dame University, In- diana; Cl^manges; Cochin, Jacques; Cochin, Pierre; College de France.

DE SMEDT, CH., S.J., Brussels: Criticism, His- torical.

DEVAS, FRANCIS CHARLES, S.J., Classical Master, Stonyhurst College, Blackburn, England: Devas.

DEVLIN, WILLIAM, S.J., Woodstock College, Maryland: Cremation.

DIONNE, N. E., S.B., M.D., Librari.vn to the Leg- islature OP Quebec: Denonville.

DONOVAN, STEPHEN M., O.F.M., Franclscan Monastery, Wa.shington: Clare of Montefalco; Clare of Rimini; Coelde; Colman, Walter; Con- rad of Ascoli ; Conrad of OfEda ; Conrad of Pia- cenza; Conrad of Saxony; Conry; Conversi; Cozza; Crib; Crispin of Viterbo ; Crown, Francis- can; Cunegundes; Daniel and Companions; Delfino; Delphine; Didacus.

DOWLING, AUSTIN, Providence, Rhode Island: Conclave.

DOWLING, M. P., S.J., ICansas City, Missouri: Creighton University.

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., D.D., President of St. Jo- seph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Dan.

DRISCOLL, JAMES H., S.T.D., D.C.L., Rouse's Point, New York: Contumacy.

DRISCOLL, JOHN THOM.4S, A. M., S.T.L., Fonda, New York: Deity.

D'SOUZA, A. X., Bombay, India: Cuncolim, Martyrs of.

DUBRAY, C. a., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of Phil- osophy, Marist College, Washington: Clich- tove ; Colonna, Egidio ; Dhuoda.

DUNFORD, DAVID, Diocesan Inspector of Schools, Hoddesdon, Herts, England: Cu- rate; Dean; Decree.

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Professor of Celtic L.\n- guages -4ND Literature, Catholic University OF America, Washington: Crescimbeni.

DURET, AUGUSTE, D.D., Prefect Apostolic of the Delta of the Nile, Cairo, Egypt: Delta of

the Nile.

EDMONDS, COLUMBA, O.S.B., Fort Augustus, Scotland: Coemgen; Columba, Saint; Colum- ba, Saint, Abbot of lona; Columbanus.

ENGELHARDT, ZEPHYRIN, O.F.M., Watson- viLLE, California: Dej-mann; Diego y Moreno.

ENNIS, a. T., Concordia, Ivansas: Concordia


ENRIGHT, sister M. AUGUSTINE, St. Joseph's Academy, Springfield, Illinois: Dallas.

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor of Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis University, St. Louis: Cleric; College (in Canon Law); Collegiate; Commissary Apostolic; Competency; Conference; Confraternity; Con- grua; Conservator; Constitutions, Papal; Cura- tor; Cure of Souls; Cur-sores Apostolici; Cus- tom; Definitor (in Canon Law); Delegation; Denunciation; De Smet; Devolution; Dimis- sorial Letters.


FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President of St. Austin's College, Brookland, D. C, Profes- sor OF Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Semi- nary, Baltimore: Codex Alexandrinus ; Codex Amiatinus; Codex Bezoe; Codex Ephnemi Re- scriptus; Codex Sinaiticus; Concordances of the Bible; Crescens.

FISCHER, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor of Geo- graphy AND History, .Stella Matutina Col- lege, Feldkirch, Austria: Clavus.

FISHER, J. H., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- land: Cursing; Delrio.

FIT.A. Y COLOMER, FIDEL, S.J., Member of the Royal Academtt of History, Madrid: Com- postela.

FORTESCUE, ADRIAN, Ph.D., D.D., Letchworth, Herts, England: Collect; Communion- Ant i- phon; Concelebration; Confiteor; Constanti- nople, Rite of; Cowl; Denzinger.



Montre.al: Colin, Fr^d^ric; Cuoq.

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., B.A., Professor of Philos- ophy, St. Tho.mas's College, Washington: Cruelty to Animals.

FOX, WILLIAM, B.S., M.E., Associate Professor of Physics, College of the City of New York: Gierke.

FUENTES, VENTURA, A.B., M.D., Instructor, College of the City op New York: Cruz; Cuba; Cueva; De Soto; Diaz del Castillo; Diaz de Soils.

GANS, LEO, J.C.D., St. Cloud, Minnesota: Com- promise.

GARDNER, EDMUND GARRETT, M.A. (Cam- bridge), London: Colonna, Vittoria; Dante Alighieri.

GAYNOR, H. a., S.J., Woodstock College, Mary- l-u^d: Concubinage.

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London: Coleridge; Digby, Sir Everard.

GEUDENS, FRANCIS MARTIN, O.Pr.em., Abbot Titular of Barlings, Corpus Christi Priory, Manchester, England: Cornillon.

GIETMANN, GERARD, S.J., Teacher of Classical Langtages and .Esthetics, St. Ignatius Col- lege, Valkenburg, Holland: Cornelisz; Cor- nelius, Peter.

GIGOT, FR.\NCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of Sacred Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Daniel; Daniel, Book of.

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Clovio; Delaroche.

GILLIAT-SMITH, FREDERICK ERNEST, Bruges: Common Life, Brethren of the.

GODINHO, JOHN, Dabul, Bombay, India: Damao.

GOLUBOVICH, GIROLAMO, O.F.M., Florence, Italy: Dardel.

GOYAU, GEORGES, Assoclite Editor, "Revue DEs Deu.x Mondes", Paris: Clermont; Com- pagnie du Saint-Sacreraent ; Concordat of 1801; Constantine, Diocese of ; Coutances ; Digne ; Dijon.

GRATTAN-FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I.A., Mus.D., Rosemount, Enniscorthy, Ireland: Clement of Ireland; Colman, Saints; Conal; Conan; Cro- nan; Dalton; Darerca; Deicolus; Diarmaid; Dichu.

GRUPP, GEORG, Maihingen near Marktoffin- gbn, Bavaria: Constantine the Great (Historical Appreciation).

GUASCO, ALEXANDRE, LL.D., Secretary Gen- eral OF THE Society for the Propagation of the Faith, Paris: Corsica.

GULDNER, B., S.J., St. Joseph's College, Phila- delphi.\: Coffin, Robert; Contzen; Conversion.

GURDON, EDMUND, O. Cart., Barcelona, Spain: Contemplative Life; Denys the Carthusian.

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Ob.serv.\tory, Rome: Copernicus.

HANDLE Y, M. L., Madison, New Jersey: Coustou; Coysevox; Danti, Vincenzo; Decker.

HANNA, EDWARD J., S.T.D., Professor of The- ology, St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, New York: Contrition.

HARTIG, otto, Assistant Librarian of the Royal and City Library, Munich: Cosa; Cos- mas Indicopleustes ; Delisle; Dias; Dicuil.

HARTY, JOHN M., D.D., Profe.ssor of Moral Theology and Canon Law, St. P.\trick's Col- lege, Maynooth: Definition, Theological.

HASSETT, M.4URICE M., S.T.D., Harrisburg, Pennsylvani.\^: Coliseum.

HAVEY, FRANCIS P., S.S., S.T.D., Professor op Homiletics ant> Pastoral Theology, St. John's Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts; Clement of Alexandria.

HEALY, Most Reverend JOHN, D.D., LL.D., M.R.I..\., Senator of the Roy'al University of Ireland, Archbishop of Tu.vm: Clonard; Clonf ert ; Clomnacnoise ; Cork, School of ; Derry, School of.

HEALY, PAT -tICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Profes- sor OP Church History, Catholic University op .America, Washington: Combefis; Commo- dus; Decius.

HECKMANN, FERDINAND, O.F.M., Teacher op Latin and Greek, Mount St. Sepulchre Mon- astery, Washington: Cord, Confraternities of the.

HENRY, H. T., Litt.D., Rector of Roman Catho- lic High School for Boys, Professor of Eng- lish Literature and of Gregorian Chant, St. Charles's Seminary, Overbrook, Pennsyl- vania: Congregational Singing; Dies Irce.

HERBERMANN, CHARLE.S G., Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Latin Language and Litera- ture, College of the City op New York : Con- stantine the Great (First Part) ; Dance of Death

(First Part)

GORY, JAMES L., Covington, Kentucky: Cov- HERRERA, FELICI.\N0, Comayagua, Honduras: ington. Comayagua.


HIND, GEORGE ELPHEGE, O.S.B., Glamorgan- shire, Wales: Clark; Clajrton; Clement, John; Coenred; Cole; Coleman; Courtenay; Cressy; Cuthbert, Abbot of Wearmouth ; Cuthbert, Arch- bishop of Canterbury.

HINOJOSA, EDUARDO de, Member op the Span- ish Academy, Professor of History; Univer- sity op Madrid: Coimbra; Coria; Crusade, Bull of the; Cuenoa (Spain).

HOEBER, KARL, Ph.D., Editor, "Volkszeitung" and "Die ."Vkademischen Monatsblatter", Cologne: Dillingen.

HOLWECK, FREDERICK G., St. Louis: Colmar; DeoGratias; DeProfundis; Deus in Adjutorium.

HOUCK, GEORGE F., Domestic Prelate, Dioc- esan Chancellor, Cleveland, Ohio: Cleve- land.

HOWLETT, J. A., O.S.B., M.A., Suffolk, England: Desert (in the Bible).

HOWLETT, WILLIAM JOSEPH, Pueblo, Colo- rado: Denver.

HUNT, LEIGH, Professor of Art, College of the City of New York: Cleef, Jan van; Cleef, Joost van; Cleef, Martin van; Clouet; Corneille, Jean- Baptiste; Corneille, Michel (2); Cousin; Cri- velli; Deger.

HUNTER-BLAIR, D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., 0.x-

pord, England: Croyland.

HURTH, PETER JOSEPH, C.S.C, S.T.D., Bishop of Dacca, India: Dacca.

JENNER, HENRY, F.S.A., Assistant Librarian, British Museum: Creed, Liturgical Use of.

JOUVE, ODORIC-M., O.F.M., Candiac, Canada: Denis, Joseph.

KELLY, G. E., S.J., Woodstock College, Mart- land: Coster; Coton.

KELLY, LEO A., Ph.B., Rochester, New York Coleti; Concordat (Second Part); Deusdedit Pope.

KENT, W. H., O.S.C., Bayswater, London: Demon, Demoniacs; Demonology; Devil; DevU- Wor- shippers.

IvERZE, FRANCIS L., Cleveland, Ohio: De- harbe.

KIRSCH, Mgr. J. P., Professor of Pathology and Christian Arch.bology, University of Fri- BOURG, Switzerland: Cletus; Conrad of Mar- burg; Damberger ; Darras ; David Scotus ; Dela- tores; Desiderius of Cahors; Deusdedit, Car- dinal; Diekamp; Dietrich von Nieheim.

KNOWLES, JOSEPH ALPHONSUS, O.S.A., Presi- dent OF THE Catholic Young Men's Society, Cork: Coronet, Gregorio.

KRMPOTIC, M. D., Kansas City, Kansas: Croatia; D.ilmatia.

KURTH, GODEFROID, Director, Belgian His- torical In.stitute, Liege: Clotilda; Clovis.

LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph. D., Aachen: Die- ringer.

LAURENTIUS, JOSEPH, S. J., Professor of Canon Law, St. Ignatius College, Valken- BURG, Holland: Diocesan Chancery.

tLE BARS, JEAN, B.A., Litt.D., Member of the Asiatic Society, Paris: Daguesseau.

LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University of France, Professor of the Catholic Institute of Paris: ClaudianusMamertus; Commodianus; Consentius; Daeier.

LENHART, JOHN M., O.M.Cap., Lector of Phil- osophy, St. Fidelis Monastery, Victoria, Kansas: Coccaleo; Comboni.

LIBERT, P. PROSPER, S.T.B., Librarian, St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, New York'- De La Croi.x, Charles.

LINDSAY, LIONEL ST. G., B.Sc, Ph.D., Editor- in-Chief, "La Noitv'elle France", Quebec: Denaut.

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg, Germany: Cologne; Csanad; Culm; Damaraland.

LIONNET, JOSEPH, Licenti.ate of Letters, Ed- itor, "Etudes Religieuses ", Paris: Daniel, Charles.

LOUGHLIN, Mgr. JAMES F., S.T.D., Philadel- phia: Clement II; III; IV; VIII; IX; X; XI; XII; Clericis Laicos; Colonna (Family); Con- gregationalism; Conwell; Corcoran, James.

LUCAS, GEORGE J., S.T.D., Blossburg, Penn- sylvanla: Creed.

LUEBBERMANN, BONIFACE, Professor op Sa- cred Scripture, Mt. St. Mary''s Se.minary, El- LENOR.i, Ohio: Diepenbrock.

LUZIO, SALVATORE, D.D., Ph.D., J.U.D., Pro- fessor of CUnon Law, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth: Degradation; Deposition; Dero- gation.

MAA.S, A. J., .S.J., Rector of Woodstock College, M-ARYLANd: Communicatio Idiomatum; Co- ninck; Correctories; Deluge; Deuteronomy.

MacC.A.FFREY, JAMES, S.T.L., St. Patrick's Col- lege, M.\ynooth: Clogher; Coelchu; Colgan; Comgall; Cormac MacCuilenan- Curry; Derry, Diocese of.

MACPHERSON, EWAN, New York: Dahomey.

McDonald, MICHAEL, Westport, Ireland; Croagh Patrick.

McDON.VLD, WALTER, D.D., Prepect of the Dunboyne Establishment, Maynooth Col- lege: Congruism.

McMAHON, ARTHUR L., O.P., St. Dominic's Pri- ory, San Francisco: Dedication, Feast of the; Didon.

MAERE, R., D.D., Professor of Christian Ar- ch.eology, LTniversity of Louv.un: Diaconi- cum; Didron.


MAGNIER, JOHN, C.SS.R., Rome: Clement Mary Hofbauer; Dechamps, Victor; Desurmont.

t Deceased.


MAKER, MICHAEL, S.J., Litt.D., M.A., Director MUELLER, ADOLF, S.J., Director of the Private

OF Studies and Professor of Pedagogics, St. Astronomical Observatory on the Janicu-

Mary's Hall, Stonyhurst, Blackburn, Eng- lum. Professor of Astronomy at the Gregor-

land: Consciousness; Determinism. ian Observatory, Rome: Clavius.

MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster, St. Ctjthbert's Gram.mar School, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Eng- land: Conon; Constantine, Pope.

MARIQUE, PIERRE JOSEPH, Tutor in French, College of the City of New York: Conscience, Hendrik; Dechamps, Adolphe; Delille..

MARUCCHI, ORAZIO, Professor op Christian Arch.eology, Director of the Christian Mu- seum AT the Lateran, Rome: Cross and Cruci- fix (Part I. Archaeology).

MEEHAN, THOMAS F., New York: Congresses (Part III); Corcoran, Michael; Cosgrove; Cosin; Croke; Cummings; Da Ponte; Day, Sir John; Denman; Detroit.

MEIER, GABRIEL, O.S.B., Einsiedeln, Switzer- land: Cosmas and Damiaii; Crispina; Crispin and Crispinian; Cyprian, Saint, Bishop of Toulon ; Cyprian, Saint, and Justina.

MELODY, JOHN WEBSTER, A.M., S.T.D., Asso- ciate Professor op jMoral Theology, Catho- lic University of America, Washington: Commandments of the Church; Continence; Covarruvias; Cresconius.

MERSHMAN, FRANCIS, O.S.B., S.T.D., Professor OF Moral Theology, Canon Law, and Liturgy-, St. John's University, Collegeville, Minne- sota: Corbinian; Corpus Christi; Deer, Abbey of; Diario Romano.

MING, JOHN J., S.J., Professor or Ethics, St. Ignatius College, Cleveland, Ohio: Concu- piscence.

MOLLOY, JOSEPH VINCENT, O.P., S.T.L., Somer- set, Ohio: Dead Sea; Decapolis.

MONTEIRO d'AGUIAR, Joseph, Secretary of the Episcopal Curia, Cochin, India: Cochin, Diocese of.

MOONEY, J.AMES, United States Ethnologist, Washington: Coeur d'Alene Indians; Cree; Creeks; Delaware Indians.

MOONEY, JOSEPH F., LL.D., Ph.D., Prothono- tary Apcstolic, Vicar-General of the Arch- diocese of New York: Consultors, Diocesan; Corrigan, Michael.

MORAN, PATRICK FRANCIS, Cardinal, Arch- bishop op Sydney, Primate of Austr.'Ill\: Cullen.

MORICE, A. G., O.M.I., St. Boniface, Manitoba: Demers; D6n^s.

MORRISON, ROBERT STEWART, Denver, Colo- rado: Colorado.

MORRISROE, PATRICK, Dean and Professor op Liturgy, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth: Colours, Liturgical; Commemoration; Com- munion-Bench; Communion of Children; Com- munion of the Sick; Credence; Crosier; Cross- Bearer; Cruet; Dedication; Desecration.

MOYES, JAMES CANON, Westminster, London: Clovesho.

MULHANE, L. W., Mt. Vernon, Ohio: Columbus, Diocese of.

MURPHY, JOHN F. X., S.J., Woodstock College, Maryland: Clerks Regular; Clerks Regular of Our Saviour; Daniel, Gabriel.

MUTEL, GUSTAVE, Seoul, Corea: Corea.

MYERS, EDWARD, M.A. (Cambridge), Professor OF Dogm.\tic Theology' and of Pathology, St. Edmund's College, Ware, England: Convoca- tion of the English Clergy.

NYS, DESIRE, S.T.B., Ph.D., President, Semi- naire Leon XIII, University op Louvain: Cos- mology.

O'DANIEL, VICTOR F., O.P., S.T.L., Professor op Dogmatic Theology, Dominican House op Studies, Washington: Connolly.

OESTREICH, THOMAS, O.S.B., Professor of Church IIistohy and Sacred Scripture, Mary- help Abbey, Belmont, North Carolina: DamasusII; Delfau.

OJETTI, BENEDETTO, S.J., Consultor S.C.P.F., Consultor S.C.C, Consultor op the Commis- sion ON the Codipic.\tion of C.inon Law, Gre- gorian LIniversity, Rome: Concordat; Courts, Ecclesiastical.

O'NEILL, JAMES D., A.M., S.T.D., Highland P.a.rk, Illinois: Clandestinity; Concursus; Consent.

O'RIORDAN, JOHN, Cloyne, County Cork: Cloyne.

OSUNA, MANUEL GARCIA, S.T.D., Cordova, Spain: Cordova (Spain).

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the History op Philosophy, St. John's Univer- sity, Collegeville, Minnesota: Commenda- tory Abbot; Commendone; Conrad of Hoch- stadt; Conrad of Leonberg; Conrad of Uracil ; Conrad of Utrecht; Constance; Corker; Cor- tese; Coustant; Couturier; Cracow, Diocese of; Dalberg; Diemoth; Diether of Isenburg.

OTTEN, JOSEPH, PrrrsBURGH, Pennsylvania: Clemens non Papa; Colonna, Giovanni; Coun- terpoint; Coussemaker; Croce; Deprfe.

PACE, EDWARD A., Ph.D., D.D., Prope.ssor of Psychology, C.\tholic University op America, Washington: Cologne, LTniversity of; Copen- hagen, University of ; Cornaro.

PAPI, HECTOR, S.J., Ph.D., B.C.L., S.T.D., Pro- fessor OP Canon Law, Woodstock College, Maryland : Consistory.

PETIT, L., A.A., Constantinople: Delcus.

PETRIDES, S., A.A., Constantinople: CTaudi- opolis (2) ; Clazomenffi ; Cocussus ; Colonia ; Colo- phon; Colossi; Comana; Coracesium; Corfu; Corinth; Corj'dallus; Cotenna; CotiiBum; Croia; Curium; Cusee; Cybi.stra; Cyclades; Cydonia; CjTne; Cyprus; Gyrene; Danaba; Dansara; Dardanus; Damis; Daulia; Derbe; Dibon.


PHILLIPS, G. E., Professor of Philosophy and Church History, St. Cuthbert's College, UsHAW, Durham, England: Day, George; Dicconson.

PIAT, CLODIUS, Litt.D., Professor of Philos- ophy, Institut Catholique, Paris: Descartes.

PLANCARTE Y NAVARRETE, FRANCISCO, S.T.D., Bishop of Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico: Cuernavaca.

POLLARD-URQUHART, JEROME, O.S.B., St. Benedict's Abbey, Fort Augu.stus, Scotland: Dempster.

POLLEN, JOHN HUNGERFORD, S.J., London: Counter- Reformation.

POOLE, THOMAS H., New York: Qerestory; Colonnade; Column; Cornice; Coucy; Crypt; Cupola.

POULAIN, AUGUSTIN, S.J., Paris: Contempla- tion.

PRAT, FERDINAND, S.J., Memberofthe Biblical Commission, Professor of Holy Scripture AND Oriental Languages, College German- ique, Rome: Criticism, Biblical (Textual).

REID, GEORGE JOSEPH, S.T.L., Professor of Sacred Scripture and Hebrew, The St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota: Criticism, Biblical (Higher).

REILLY, W. S., S.T.D., S.S., St. Stephen's Bibli- cal School, Jerusalem: Claudia; Cush; Da- lila; Debbora.

REINHOLD, GREGOR, Freiburg, Germany: Diakovijr.

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., Ph.D., Adjunct-Professor OF Germanic Philology, Columbia Univer- sity, New York: Daumer; Denis, Johann.

RICKABY, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Ethics, St. Mary's Hall, Stonyhurst College, Black- burn, England: Conscience.

ROBINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., Rome: Clare of Assisi; Conventuals.

ROCK, P.M. J., Louisville, Kentucky: Decora- tions, Pontifical.

ROUGIER, FRANCIS, A.M., College op the City of New York: Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin.

RUDGE, FLORENCE MARIE, M.A., Youngstot^-n, Ohio: Concepcion; Confession (1?omb of a mar- tyr) ; Craven ; Curityba do ParanS ; Cuyabd ; Cuzco.

RUDSKI, OSCAR, S.J., Professor of Sacred Scripture .\nd Hebrew, University of Cra- cow: Cracow, University of.

RYAN, JOHN A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral The- ology, The St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Min- nf.sota: Collectivism; Communism; Compen- sation ; Conciliation.

RYAN, PATRICK, S.J., London: Clifford; Coffin, Edward; Constable, John; Coombes; Corbie, Ambrose and Ralph ; Creswell ; Curr.

SAUER, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Editor, "Rundschau", Professor of Theology, University of Frei- burg, Germany: Cochlaeus; Crotus; Cuspinian.

SAUVAGE, G. M., C.S.C, S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor OP Dogmatic Theology, Holy Cross College, Washington: Cond iliac; Contract, The Social.

SCANNELL, T. B., S.T.D., Editor, "Catholic Dic- tion.vry", Folkestone, England: Confirma- tion; Consubstantiation.

SCHAEFER, FRANCIS J., S.T.D., Ph.D., Profes- sor of Church History, The St. Paul Semi- nary, St. Paul, Minnesota: Consalvi; Con- tarini, Gasparo; Cosmas of Prague ; Crescentius; Cretin; Dei Gratia.

SCHLAGER, HEINRICH PATRICIUS, Harre- veld, near Lichtenvoorde, Holland: Cl^men- cet; Clement, Francois; Cr6tineau-Joly; Dan- tine.

SCHROEDER, JOSEPH, O.P., Immaculate Con- ception College, Washington: Concina.

SCHULTE, AUGUSTUS JOSEPH, Professor of Liturgy", Latin, and French, St. Ch.\rles's Seminary, Overbrook, Pennsylv.\nia: C'ol- lectarium ; Consecration.

SCHWEITZER, PETER, S.J., Professor of Ethics and History, Canisius College, Buf- falo, New York: Comely.

SCHWICKERATH, ROBERT, S.J., Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass.\chusetts: Col- lege.

SEARLE, GEORGE M., C.S.P., New York: Deshon.

SENNA, NELSON COELHO de, Minas Geraes, Brazil: Diamantina.

SEXTON, PATRICK, D.D., Pre-sident of St. Fin- barr's Seminary, Cork, Ireland: Cork, Dio- cese of.

SHAHAN, THOMAS J., D.D., Professor of Church History, C.vtholic University of America, Washington: Clement V; Commissions; Con- stance, Council of; Constantinople, Councils of; Damasus I; Dignitary.

SHANNAHAN, WILLIAM PATRICK, Professor OF Philosophy, President of St. Ambrose College, Davenport, Iowa; Davenport.

SHARPE, ALFRED BOWYER, M.A. (Oxon.), Saf- fron Walden, Essex, England: Common Sense.

SHIELDS, THOMAS EDWARD, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physiological Psychology, Catholic University of A-merica, Washing- ton: Co-education.

SIEGFRIED, FRANCIS PATRICK, Professor o:f Philosophy, St. Charles's Seminary, Over- brook, Pennsylvania: Contingent; Creation; Creationism ; Deutinger.

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Beuno's College, St. As.vph, W.4.LES: Contract (Part I) ; Debt; Diana.

SLOANE, CHARLES WILLIAM, New York: Con- tract (Part II); Coudert.

SLOANE, THOMAS O'CONOR, A.M., E.M., Ph.D., New York: Despretz.

SMITH, HELEN GRACE, Torresdale, Pennsyx-

vania: De Vere. SMITH, SYDNEY F., S.J., London: Clement XIII;



SOLLIER, JOSEPH FRANCIS, S.M., S.T.D, San Francisco: Colbert; Colin, Jean; Communion of Saints ; Cornet ; Cyrus of Alexandria ; Darboy ; Deschamps, Nicolas; Dillon.

SOUVAY, CHARLES L.,C.M.,LL.B., S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor of Holy Scripture and Hebrew, Kenrick Semin.ary, St. Louis: Court (in Scrip- ture); Dagon; Dancing; Dietenbergor.

SPAHN, MARTIN, Ph.D., University op Stras- burg, Germany: Congresses (Parts I and II).

SPILL.A.NE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate Ed- itor, "The Messenger", New York: Co- quart; Cordara; Cr^pieu!; Dablon; Daniel, Anthony; Dawson; Detre; Diaz, Pedro.

STAPLETON, JOHN H., Hartford, Connecticut: Clericato; Climent; Commandments of God; Compensation, Occult; Contenson; Co veto us- ness.

STIGLMAYR, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor of Latin, Greek, and Gerii.\n, Stell.\^ Matutina Coir- lege, Feldkirch, Austria: Denis, Saint,

TA.\FFE, THOMAS GAFFNEY, PhJ)., lN.sTRUcroR IN English Liter.\ture, College of the City or New York : Crevecoeur.

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Clement VH; Collections; Cope; Coronation; Corporal; Costume; Cross and Crucifix (Part III. In Liturgy) ; Crown of Thorns ; Cursor Mundi ; Cyne- wulf; Daniel of Winchester; Dates and Dating; Deacons ; Deaconesses.

TOKE, LESLIE ALEXLANDER ST. LAWRENCE, B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, near Bath, E.ngland: David, Saint.

TONER, PATRICK J., D.D., Professor of Dog- M.VTic Theology, St. Patrick's College, May- nooth: Communion under Both lunds; Dead, Prayers for the.

TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of Logic and the History of Philo.sophy, Catho- lic University of America, Washington: CjTiic School of Philosophy; Cyrenaic School of Philosophy; David of Dinant.

URQUHART, FRANCIS FORTESCUE, M.A., Lec- turer IN Modern History, B.\lliol College, O.kford; Diceto.

VAILHE, SIMEON, A.A., Member of the Ru.ssian


Professor op Sacred Scripture and History AT the Theological Seminary of Kadi-Keui, Constantinople: Constantia; Constantinople; Coptos; Corycus; Crisitim; Curubis; Cyrrhus; Cyzicus; Damascus; Damietta; Dioeaesarea.

VAN^ BA.\RS, JACOBUS JOH.ANNES AMBRO- SIUS, Vicar Apostolic of Curasao: Curasao.

VAN CLEEF, AUGUSTUS, New York: Diepen- beeck.

VAN DEN BIESEN, C, S.T.D., Professor of He- brew AND Old Test.vment Exegesis, St. Jo- seph's College, Mill Hill, London: Diaspora.

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor of Church His- tory and of Canon Law, University of Lou- V-un: Corpus Juris Canonici; Decretals; Dens; Devoti.

VAN KASTEREN, JOHN P., S.J., Maastricht, Holl.vnd: Cornelius Cornelii a Lapide.

VANOUS, FRANCIS, Chicago: Czech Language and Literature.

VERMEERSCH, ARTHUR, S.J., LL.D., Doctor of Social and Political Sciences, Professor of MoR.A^L Theology and Canon Law, Lou vain: Qoister; Congo.

VOLZ, JOHN R., O.P., Washington: Coeffeteau; Collado ; Conradin of Bornada.

WALSH, J.A.MES J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., Profes-sor OF the History of Medicine, Fordha.m L^ni- VERsiTY, New York: Colombo, Matteo; Con- stant ine Africanus; Corrigan, Sir Dominic; David, Armand; Desault.

WALSH, REGINALD, O.P., S.T.D., Rome: Denifle.

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, England: Corporation Act of 1661.

WARREN, K\TE MARY, Lecturer in English Literature under University of London at Westfield College, Hajipstead, London: D'Avenant.

WEALE, WILLIAM HENRY JAMES, London: David, Gheeraert.

WEBB, JAMES H., New H.aven, Connecticut: Connecticut.

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.L., Professor op Church History, Marist College, Washington: Cle- mens; Clement VI; Costadoni; Cotelier.

WILHELM, J., S.T.D., Ph.D., B.attle, Sussex, England: Clement XIV; College, Apostolic; Constitutions, Ecclesiastical; Councils, General.

WILLIAMSON, GEORGE CHARLES, Litt.D., London: Contarini, Giovanni; Cossa; Costa; Cosway ; Coxcie ; Crayer ; Credi ; Dance of Death (Second Part).

WILLIS, JOHN WILLEY, A.M., St. Paul, Minne- sota: Corporation.

WITTMANN, PIUS, Ph.D., Reichsarchivrath, Munich: Denmark.

YZERMANS, HENRICUS WILHELMUS ULARIA, Can. S.C, S.T.L., St. Agatha, near Cuyk, Hol- land: Crosiers, The.

ZIMMERMAN, B., O.D.C., St. Luke's Priory, Win- canton, Somerset, England: Cohen; Con- ecte; Cyril of Constantinople; Dereser.

Tables of Abbreviations

The follownng tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Encycxopedia in interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases wliich, for economy of space, w-ill be most fre- quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical.

I. General Abbreviations.

a article.

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum).

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annii.i,


ap in (Lat. apud).

art article.

.4s.syr Assyrian.

A. S Anglo-Saxon.

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the

Bible authorized for \i.se in the Anglican Church the so-called "King James", or "Protestant Bible").

b bom.

Bk Book.

Bl Blessed.

C, c about (Lat. circa); canon; chap-

ter; compagnie.

can canon.

cap chapter (Lat. caput used only

in Latin context).

cf compare (Lat. confer).

cod codex.

col column.

concl conclusion.

const., constit. . . .Lat. constitutio.

cura by the industry of.

d died.

diet dictionary (Fr. dictionnaire).

disp. Lat. disputatio.

diss Lat. dissertatio.

dist Lat. distindio.

D. V Douay Version.

ed., edit edited, edition, editor.

Ep., Epp letter, letters (Lat. epistola).

Fr French.

gen genus.

Gr Greek.

H. E., Hist. Eccl. .Ecclesiastical History.

Heb., Hebr Hebrew.

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem).

Id the same person, or author (Lat.


inf below (Lat. infra).

It Italian.

1. c.,loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. lor^


Lat Latin.

lat latitude.

lib book (Lat. liber).

long longitude.

Mon Lat. Monumcnta.

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts.

n., no number.

N. T New Testament.

Nat National.

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French.

op. cit iu the work quoted (Lat. open


Ord Order.

O. T Old Testament.

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref- erences) pars (part).

par paragraph.

pa-taim in various places.

pt part.

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g.

"Church Quarterly".

Q-i QQ-. quEest. . . .question, questions (Lat. quwstio).

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide).

Rev Review (a periodical).

R. S RoUs Series.

R. V Revised Version.

S., SS Lat. Sanclwi, Sancli, "Saint",

"Saints" used in this Ency- clopedia only in Latin context.

Sept Septuagint.

Sess Session.

Skt Sanskrit.

Sp Spanish.

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat.


St., Sts Saint, Saints.

sup Above (Lat. supra).

s. V Under the corresponding title

(Lat. suh voce).

torn volume (Lat. lomus).


tr translation or translated. By it- self it means " English transla- tion", OT "translated into Eng- lish by". Where a translation is into any other language, the language is stated.

tr., tract tractate.

Y see (Lat. vida).

Ven Venerable.

Vol Volume.

II. Abbreviations of Titles.

Acta SS Ada Sanctorum (BoUandists).

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, Annuaire pontifical


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.GiUow, Bibliographical Diction- ary of the English Catholics.

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetham (ed.), Dictionary of Christian An- tiquities.

Diet. Ctu-ist. Biog. . Diet, d'arch. chret. .

Diet, de th^ol. cath.

Diet. Nat. Biog. . . .

Hast., Diet, of tlie Bible


P. G

P. L

Vig., Dict.de la Bible

. Smith and Wace (ed.), Diction- ary of Christian Biography.

.Cabrol (ed.), Dictionnaire d'ar- cheologie chritienne et de litur- gie.

.Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), Dictionnaire de theologie catholique.

.Stephen (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography.

Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of

the Bil^le. , Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexi-

con. .Migne (ed.), Patres Greed. .Migne (ed.), Patres Latini. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de

la Bible.

Note I. Large Roman numerals standing alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate chapters. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other ca.ses the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus " Rashdall, Universities of Europe. I. i.x" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; "I, p. ix" would indicate the ninth page of the preface of the same volume.

Note II. Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to "Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophise"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which may best be understood by the following example: " I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 u™ " refers the reader to the seventh article of the sixth question in the first part of the second part, in the response to the second objection.

Note III. The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Ecclesiasticus is indicated by Ecdus.. to distinguish it from Ecclesiastes (EccUs.). It should also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II Samuel in .\. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II Chronicles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked difference between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter is added, in parentheses.


Full Page Illustrations in Volume IV

Frontispiece in Colour p^qe

Cleveland 54

Cloisters 60

Cong Abbey 64

Francis I in Full Armour Clouet 68

Codex Amiatiuus 82

The Coliseum 102

The Cathedral, Cologne 118

Colorado 130

Some Portraits of Columbus 144

Ercole Cardinal Consalvi 262

Victory of Constantine the Great over Maxentius 300

Constantinople 306

The Syon Cope— XIII Century 350

Copernicus " De Orbium Coelestium Rcvolutionibus" 352

Interior of the Cathedral, Cordova 360

Memorial of the Vatican Council 432

Croagh Patrick 508

Apparition of the Cross to Constantine 522

Cross of Cong 532

Crucifixes 536

Coronation of Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem 546

Pontifical Decorations 668

Detroit 758

Cathedral of Saint-Benigne, Dijon ' 794


Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama 122

South Africa 236

Juan de la Cosa First Map of the New Discoveries 402

Crusades 554

Central America West Indies 560

Denmark and Scandinavia 722


Clandestinity (In Canon Law). Strictly speak- ing, tlaiiiie.stinity signifies a matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent (.Se.ss. XXIV, c. i) to invalidate marriages contracted at variance witli the exigencies of the decree "Tametsi", commonly so called because the first word of the Latin text is tametsi. The decree reads: "Those who attempt to contract matrimony otherwise than in the presence of the parish priest or of another priest with leave of the parish priest or of the ordinary, and before two or three witnesses, the Holy Synod renders altogether incapable of such a contract, and declares such con- tracts null and void." The Council of Trent did not transmit any lii.storical record of tliis question. While upholding the validity of clandestine marriages "as long as tlie Church does not annul them", the council asserts that "for weighty reasons the holy Church of fiod ahvaj's abhorred and prohibited them" (Sess. XXIV, De reformatione matrimonii). That this sen- tence strikes the keynote of unending antipathy on the part of the Church towards clandestine marriages can be gathered by a brief review of the historical attitude of tlie Churcli. In the fifth chapter of his Epistle to Polycarp, St. Ignatius intimates how men and women about to marry should enter wedlock with the bishop's consent, so that their marriage may be in the Lord (Ante-Nicene Fathers, I, 100). TertuUian writes that matrimonial imions contracted without the intervention of ecclesiastical authority are liable to be jiuiged tantamount to fornication and adultery (Depudicitia, iv, in Migne, P. L., II, 987). Inanotlier passage lie extols the happiness of that union which is cemented by the Church, confirmed by oblation, sealed with blessing, which angels proclaim, and whicli the Father in heaven ratifies (Ad uxorem, in Migne, P. L., II, 9). The tliirteenth canon of the .so-called Fourth Council of Carthage requires parties contract- ing marriage to be presented to a priest of the Church by their parents or liridal attendants in order to re- ceive the ble.s.sing of the Church (Hefele, Historj' of the Councils, II, 412). Whatever may be the age of this canon, the castom tlierein enjoined had pre- viously won the approval of St. Ambrose, who earn- estly sought to have all marriages sanctified by the priestlv pall and benediction (Epistle xLx toVigilius, in Migne, P. L., XVI, 984). The Code of Justinian bears evidence to the influence which this imperial legislator wielded to secure the public celebration of marriage according to some legitimate form (" Novel- ke", or New Constitutions, xxii. Ixiv, c.x\'ii).

In the ninth century the Emperor Basil gave the force of written law to a widely observed custom of having a priest assist at marriages to bless and crown the married parties. Not long after. Leo the Pliiloso- pher declared that marriages celelirated without a priest's lile.ssing were worthless. Tlie replies of Pope Nicholas I (8G.'J) to the Bulgarians, the P.<eudo-Isi<lor- ian Decretals, as well a.s the " Decretum" of Burcliard IV.— 1

and that of Gratian embody ample e\'idence to prove that, during the ninth century and thereafter, the public celebration of nuptials was prescribed and clandestine marriage condemned. Though Gratian alleges forged decretals to show the prohibition of clandestine mar- riages, it must be granted that he faithfully records the usage of his age concerning the validity of such marriages. Though Alexander III (1159-1181) maintained the validity of clandestine marriage when no other impediment intervened, he obliged parties contracting such marriages to undergo penance, and suspended for three years any priest assisting thereat. (Wernz, Jus Decretalium, IV, title III, no. 516.) Another step in advance was made when Innocent III, in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), inaugu- rated the proclamation of the banns.

Finally, a turning-point in the history of this ques- tion was reached when the Council of Trent enacted the "Tametsi " as a measure destined to check abuses and to safeguard the sacredness of the marriage con- tract. The principal elements of this decree pertained to the sentence of nullification affecting marriages of Christians failing to enter wedlock in the presence of the parish priest or his legitimate representative and in that of two or more witnesses; to the ways and means of publisliing the decree; and to the penalty awaiting transgressors thereof. A succinct comment concerning these points will elucidate the purport of the decree. In the first place, to attain the desired end more effectually, the Council of Trent decreed a singular method of promulgation. It ordered that the decree should be published in every parish, and that it should lake effect only after thirty days from its pubhcation. When a parish comprised many churches, publication in the parochial church was sufficient. The term "parochial church" comprehends missions attended by priests on whom the faithful de- pend for the ministrations of religion (Cong, of the Inquisition, 14 November, 188.3). Publication of the decree in churches situated in such missions had the force of law. A new publication was not necessary when a newly-organized parish results from the dis- memberment of a parish wlierein the law already ob- tained. On the contrary, if a parish subject to the law should be united to one hitherto exempt, the former would remain bound by the law and the latter retain its immunity (Cong, of Inquis., 14 Dec, 1859).

For obvious reasons, the vernacular should be used in pulilishing the decree. The use of Latin would, according to the principles of canon law, render the act illicit but not invalid (Gasparri, Tractatus Canon- icus de Matrimonio, II, v, 119). The publication would be worthless unless the decree were made known to the faithful as a Tridentine law or as an ordinance emanating from the Holy See. While one publication sufficed to induce obligation, the council suggested repeated publication during the first year of tenure. This publication might be made whenever